Open-source

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Open-source technology can be defined as a piece of technology the design of which is made publicly available by its creators, be it the source code of the software, the design of hardware, or educational content. Open-source technology is generally made available with one of the many open-source licences which grant the users the right to copy, modify and redistribute the content.


Contents

Open-Source History

Most of computer software in the early days of computing science was developed by academics and shared with other academics to be reviewed, used, tested and possibly improved upon.

1960s/1970s

Many early mainframe operating systems, such as IBM’s Airline Control Program, an airline transaction processing system designed to run on the IBM S/360 family of mainframe computers, came with its source code. The prevalence of the BASIC programming language in personal computers of the 1980s can be explained by the popularity Tiny BASIC, a simplified version of the BASIC programming language designed to run on only 2 to 3 kb of memory was developed by Stanford University faculty in collaboration with computer science enthusiasts and made publicly available through Dr. Dobbs Journal, a publication created specifically to promote Tiny BASIC.

1980s/1990s

Richard Stallman

In 1983 Richard Stallman, a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, announced his project to develop a GNU operating system meant to be free and open-source. In 1984 he resigned from his employment at MIT to start the work on the project. In 1986 he coined the term “free software”. Although often used as a substitute term for open-source, “free software” has a different meaning. Free in the term “free software” mean “free” as in “freedom of speech” and not as “freedom from cost”. In the words of Richard Stallman “open-source is a development model, free software is a political movement.”

The release of Linux kernel by Linus Torvalds in 1991 marked the appearance of the first entirely open-source operating system.

The term open-source was first introduced in 1998 shortly after the release of source code for NetScape Navigator web browser.

2000s

The release of Git Distributed Version Control System (DVCS) marked a new era in open-source development. Originally developed by Linus Torvalds it became the first open-source DVCS available. The appearance of Git made possible many of the online source-code repositories which make the process of making and contributing to the open-source projects much simpler.

In the late 2000s, the Open-soource Hardware movement began to gain traction in the open-source community. Many projects which allow individuals to manufacture objects at home started appearing. The advent of 3D printing is making this process simpler and accessible to more and more people every day.


Open-source Licensing

All creative work, including software, automatically fall under an all rights reserved copyright from Licensing allows the creator of the work to maintain ownership while allowing others to use his work under certain conditions specified in the license [1]. In order for software to be considered open-source, it's source code needs to be released with an open-source licence.

Open-source Licences

Open-source software is generally distributed with one of the many open-source licences which grant the end-user the right to copy, modify and redistribute the content under the conditions of the licence. Any licence which conforms to the open-source definition can be considered an open-source licence. Most of the popular open-source licences are approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI), an organization created to advocate the benefits of open-source software. In order to be approved by OSI, a licence has to go through the OSI’s licence review process. The OSI website contains a long list of open-source licences which are OSI approved [1]. Many other licences exist which can be considered open-source, even if they have not been approved by OSI.

Public Domain

Releasing a work under public domain means that the owner of the work surrenders all ownership of the work; the work now has no owner[2]. This means that anyone is free to do what they wish with the piece of work. Not all jurisdictions recognize public domain, and many that do have different interpretations. Developers who wish to make their software available to as many people as possible are encouraged to release their software with a permissive license.

Copyleft vs. Non-Copyleft Licences

Copyleft Logo

Copyleft licence refers to a type of licence which allows derivative works but requires that they be released under the same licence they came under. For example, if someone modified software released under the GNU General Public Licence, the modified version must be distributed under the same GNU GPL licence. This prevents the re-use and distribution of open-source code under a proprietary licence [3].

A non-copyleft licence (also called a permissive licence) allows redistribution of software under other licences, even if they are proprietary. This allows companies to use open-source code in their commercial products. For example, Apple’s Mac OS X uses the XNU operating system kernel, which comes as open-source software as part of Darwin operating system and released under the Unix BSD licence, which allows redistribution of modified software under a different licence.

Open-Source Software

Open-source Initiative logo

The concept of open-source software has been around ever since the inception of computer software, way before the term itself was coined by the Open Source Initiative in the early 1998 shortly after the release of the Netscape source code. When the term open-source is used to describe a piece of software nowadays, it is assumed that:

  • The software can be used as the users see fit
  • The users have the right to redistribute software as they wish
  • The public has access to the source code which can be modified

Open-Source Business Models

Open-source software generally implies that selling the software is not an option for developers to profit. Therefore, alternative approaches are needed. Below are some established, well-used business models for companies to monetize their open-source software.

Advertising-Supported Software

Advertising-supported software integrates advertising functions into the program, so developers get paid by advertisers each time the program is run and a banner ad is presented to users. This popular business model helped many free open-source software developers to recover initial development costs and motivate them to continue to maintain and upgrade their products.

Example: Ubuntu, a free open-source operating system, features Amazon-affiliated advertisements when users search for apps, documents, music, and other data on its desktop interface. [4]

Dual Licensing

Dual licensing offers the same piece of software under an open-source licence and a commercial licence. Users can use the software for free under the open-source licence, provided that they do not violate the terms and conditions of the licence. Generally, users need to acquire a commercial licence when they are using the software to make profit. For example, embedding the open-source software into another program and sell it to generate revenue. Using dual licensing, customers can be attracted to a free open-source edition, then be part of an up-sell to a commercial enterprise edition, which can be used to finance the continual development of the free open-source version.

Example: Oracle’s MySQL offers an open-source general public licence and a commercial licence. Anyone who is developing and distributing open source applications under the open source general public licence is free to use MySQL. Anyone who wants to develop and distribute but does not want to release the source code for their application requires a commercial licence to use MySQL.[5]

Partner Funding

By partnering-up with sponsors, such as governments, universities, and companies, software developers can acquire enough funding to develop software that are released under an open-source licence.

Example: Mozilla Foundation, developer of the open source-based Firefox browser, receives most of its funding from Google as part of “search royalties” for using Google as a default search option in Firefox. [6]

Re-Licensing under a Proprietary Licence

Software vendors can re-license an open-source software product under a proprietary licence, if the product uses only the vendor-developed software and open-source software under a permissive free software licence. This is because vendor-developed software belongs to the vendor, and permissive free software licence gives vendor the ability to distribute future generations of the free open-source software for a price. Once the proprietary licence is acquired, the company can sell the product without the source code or software freedoms.

Example: Apple Inc.’s Mac operating system consists of source codes and software from various open-source projects[7]. Since these projects only have permissive free software licences, Apple Inc. were able to re-license them and sold the Mac operating system as a commercial product. To make sure that the Mac operating system can continue to be sold as a commercial product, Apple Inc. later acquired all of the open-source software companies that it used in the Mac operating system to privatize the use of those software.

Software as a Service (SaaS)

Under SaaS, open-source software vendor sells subscriptions for online accounts and server access to customers, so customers do not need to manage and maintain complex software and hardware systems. With the emergence of cloud computing, SaaS has become an increasingly common business model. Most cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications in exchange for subscription revenue. Paid customers are then provided access to application software and database, which in turn allow them to sell a variety of innovative services made possible by the open-source software and platform.

Example: Amazon.com uses SaaS for its Amazon Web Service, a collection of remote computing services that together make up a cloud computing platform. [8]

Selling Optional Proprietary Extensions

This business model is a variant of freemium business model. The software vendor offers a version of free open-source software with limited features, then sell proprietary but optional extensions, add-ons, and services to the open-source product. These proprietary products are usually intended to let customers get more value out of their data, infrastructure, or platform.

Example: IBM contributes to the Linux open-source operation system, which will not give IBM any financial returns. However, IBM also builds and delivers “IBM proprietary Linux software” to paying customers, which includes database software, middleware and other software that runs on top of the open-source Linux core.[9]

Selling Professional Services

In this model, the open-source software vendor generates revenue from providing value added services, such as training, technical support, and consulting, rather than the software itself.

Example: RedHat, Inc. is the creator, and the largest corporate contributor to the free open-source operating system Linux. The company relies on subscription to its training, support and consulting services to generate revenue.[10]

Development Process

Open-source software is generally developed by individuals interested in developing a piece of software to satisfy their specific needs and needs of others. The development process is driven by the needs and wants of the development team as well as the needs of the community. Developers decide to open-source their software for various reasons. Many believe that software source-code should always be available to the public. Some believe that the availability of source code result in a better quality of software. The software is likely to have a longer life-cycle is it is open-source. Even if the original development team stops the development, it is likely that some members of the community will continue improving and supporting the software. In many developer communities the act of open-sourcing software is a certain badge of honour. A person who contributes to open-source software increases his chances of employment with companies known to support the open-source movement.

Once the software is developed there many ways in which it may be made available to the public. Below are some of the platforms that make it easy and convenient to open-source a project.

GitHub

GitHub is a popular online source-code hosting website. It offers all of the functionality of the Git version control system through a convenient web interface. GitHub users can “push” their code to it, making in accessible to anyone visiting GitHub. Users can modify this source code and offer bug fixes and new features to be incorporated into it. Anyone can “fork” a project, a process which allows one to make a new and completely separate version of software based on the “forked” source code.

As of 2014 GitHub has more than three million users and more than 10 million source code repositories. Most of source code repositories on GitHub are public and available to all users. Private repositories are offered for a fee. Enterprise versions of GitHub are also available, effectively allowing companies to run GitHub and all of its services on company’s own servers.

Sourceforge

SourceForge is an online source code hosting service. Its functionality is similar to that of GitHub. It boasts more than 3.5 million users and more than 400,000 projects. It differs from GitHub in a way that allows regular non-tech-savvy users to download and install applications without having to deal with any source code. As a result SourceForge is home to many very well-known and widely user open-source applications such as the VLC Media Player, 7-Zip File Archiver and FileZilla FTP manager.

Bounty

A bounty is a monetary incentive for programmers to fix bugs or implement desired features in an open-source software project. It is usually funded by users of the software or by the company that developed the software. Bounties are posted and advertised on websites such as Bountysource and Freedomsponsors. Interested programmers can submit solutions to the websites, and the related bounty will be paid when the financial backers of the project accept the solution.

Example: Mozilla introduced a Security Bug Bounty Program, offering $500 (US) for high severity security bugs and, in some cases, up to $3,000 (US) for extraordinary or critical vulnerabilities.[11]

Notable Examples of Open-source Software

Open-source software is widely used by consumers, businesses and non-commercial organizations alike. There are countless open-source applications available: anything from operating systems to image editors. You may be browsing a website build with an open-source code editor such as Notepad++, functioning on an open-source Content Management System such as Wordpress, running on a server powered by an open-source operating system such as Linux Debian using open-source server software such as Apache. All of this running smoothly on your open-source based Android smartphone in an open-source based Google Chrome browser.

Linux OS

Top Linux contributors in 2013

Linux is a common name for a family of operating systems based on a Linux kernel originally released by Linus Torvalds in 1991. It is estimated that there are about 72 million Linux users worldwide. Android, a popular mobile operating system built on top of a Linux kernel, is installed on 900 million devices. Linux is also used in many web servers and supercomputers worldwide. Linux development process a collaborative effort between many enthusiasts and commercial organizations.

Apache

Apache is the world’s most widely used server software. Originally developed in 1995 as a replacement for NSCA HTTPd software it quickly gained popularity to become the instantly recognized product it is today. Apache is maintained by Apache Software Foundation, a non-profit organization created to support Apache projects, a diverse community of individual developers and corporations such as Yahoo, IBM and Facebook.

Wordpress

Wordpress is one of the most popular Content Management Systems (CMS) in use today. It is used by over 200 million websites worldwide. Forbes, New York Times, Reuters and CNN are just a few of the world-famous publications using the Wordpress platform. The Wordpress platform is offered for free online for anyone to use, modify and redistribute. There are many businesses that were built around Wordpress and its capabilities. Creation and selling of Wordpess themes and plug-ins is the source of income for many small web-design companies and freelancing developers.

Libreoffice

LibreOffice is an open-source office software suite which can be used as an alternative to Microsoft Office. The software package consists of six applications:

  • Writer – a word processor
  • Calc – a spreadsheet program
  • Impress – a presentation program
  • Draw – a vector file editor
  • Math – a math formulae editor
  • Base – a database management program

LibreOffice is available for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. Since its original release in 2011 it has been downloaded over 45 million times.

Audacity

Audacity is an open-source audio editing and recording software available for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. Audacity is considered to be one of the most feature-rich audio editors in existence. There hundreds of free plug-ins available which help extend the functionality of the software even further. Audacity is one of the most downloaded software packages from SourceForge with more 75 million downloads to date.

Gimp

GIMP is a general purpose image editing software package oftentimes referred to as an open-source replacement for Adobe Photoshop. GIMP stands for GNU Image Manipulation Program reflecting its existence under Richard Stallman’s GNU project.

VLC Media Player

VLC Media Player is an open-source media player and streaming media server available on a variety of platforms. VLC is the most downloaded software package from SourceForge.net at 890 million downloads.

Benefits and Drawbacks

The open source model has a lot to offer in the business world. It's a way for companies and individuals to actively collaborate on a product that none of them could achieve alone.[12]

Benefits

  • Price - open source is free to use and businesses can reduce costs using open source rather than purchasing expensive proprietary software
  • Customization - it has the ability to be customized which enables modification of the software to adapt to the needs of a particular business
  • Transparency - it allows for anyone to see the code, what it does, and how it works
  • Innovation - it sparks innovation through collaboration as everyone is able to put their inputs and expertise into creating a better and more refined product
  • Continuous Improvement - its ability to continuously improve as anyone can initiative to fix bugs without having to wait for the next release, which allows for better quality and increase in security

Drawbacks

  • Poor User Interface - the user interface isn't user-friendly and it could have a high learning curve which could lead to indirect costs such as training and support
  • Lack of Official Support - software could be buggy and there may be a lack of support which could lead to poor user experience with the software
  • Compatibility Issues - there could be a lot of issues regarding compatibility with open source programs since it may not function properly with windows and other applications

Open-source Hardware

Open Hardware logo

The term open-source hardware refers to the designs of physical objects which are made publicly available in the spirit of the open-source software movement. The advent of 3D printing plays a large role in the rising popularity of this idea. Availability of 3D printers significantly simplifies the process of object design and creation for those who do not have access to specialized tools and machinery.

Implications for Businesses

Open-source hardware movement can have a profound impact on businesses engaged in manufacturing of objects. Many have called 3D printers to be a "China on your desk" emphasizing the ability to produce physical objects quickly and cheaply by anyone who owns one.

With the easily available 3D-printable objects, one may imagine the future of manufacturers to be grim. However, it might be too early to state that 3D printers and open-source hardware are going to kill entire industries. Even though the widespread 3D printing among general population creates risks for manufacturers, it also offers the chance for fully custom designs for objects available for a fee which can be produced by a customer at home.

Examples of Open-Source Hardware Projects

Many open-source hardware projects exist and new ones appear all the time. These projects range from everyday objects, which can be downloaded and manufactured at home, to weapons, 3D-printable 3D printers and even cars. Below are some examples of these open-source hardware projects

RepRap 3D Printer

The RepRap 3D printer

RepRap is a open-source 3D printer. Originally designed by the University of Bath faculty members, the files which can be used to produce a RepRap can be downloaded of the official wiki. The instruction manual for its construction is also available on the same wiki in the form of a series of YouTube videos. The RepRap has been conceived to exist in the "symbiotic" relationship with its users. The RepRap produces useful objects and its owners produce more RepRaps with the existing one which will in turn produce more useful objects and more RepRaps.

3D Printable gun: The Liberator

The Liberator demonstration

The Liberator, a 3D printable open-source handgun attracted attention of the media worldwide in May of 2013 when the design files for it were made publicly available by Defense Distributed, a Texas-based open-source project company. Within 3 days the files were downloaded over a 100,000 times before they were taken down at the request of the US Department of State.

The Arduino Board

No discussion of open-source hardware would be complete without Arduino. Originally designed in 2005 for use by students at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Italy, Arduino has become a staple item for anyone engaged in building open-source hardware projects. Arduino is a very small microcomputer which can be used in a variety of projects. It can be extended with many other boards oftentimes called "shields" which provide additional functionality. It can also be extended with a variety of sensors such as touch, vibration, light sensors. Many variations of the Arduino board itself exist: from a relatively large Arduino Mega to an extremely small Arduino Lilypad designed for wearable applications.

Thingiverse

Although not an open-source hardware project itself, Thingiverse deserves to be mentioned in any open-source hardware discussion as it has contributed much to the movement's popularity. Thingiverse is a website created for sharing hardware designs. It hosts files for a wide variety of projects ranging from toys to 3D printers. As of 2013 the site contains over 100,000 projects.

Current Impact of Open Source

For decades, open source has been changing people's life. It is changing the way how people search information and communicate with each other. The openness and transparency that open source brings help individuals share and collaborate their knowledge much faster than before, and allows people to learn from each other and empower themselves through the Internet. This, at the same time, brings tremendous creations and innovations to the society.

Entrepreneur and Startup Company

Open-source are beneficial to two major groups, which are entrepreneurs and startups. Entrepreneurs and startups recognize that open-source is the fastest and most affordable way to launch products and services in the market. In other words, entrepreneurs and startups are able to collaborate and share their knowledge and ideas through the Internet worldwide, which helps them convert ideas to commercial success more quickly.

“If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Isaac Newton said in 300 hundreds year ago. Nowadays, the open source community is this “Giant”, that allows innovators to collaborate and empower each other regardless their diverse backgrounds.


Massimo Banzi: How Arduino is open-sourcing imagination

For example, open-source allows software developers and programmers to share their codes with each other. Comparing to traditional software venders that develop their products in house, software vendors nowadays are able to develop new software on top of a common base and customize to a specific purpose, which lead these developers to shorten their development time significantly.

XBMC

One open-source software example is XBMC, which is developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium. XBMC is a free and open-source media player and entertainment hub developed for the first generation Xbox video game console, and it can be installed on Linux, Windows, iOS, and Android. XBMC is run and developed by volunteers located around the world. "More than 450 software developers have contributed to XBMC to date, and 100-plus translators have worked to expand its reach, making it available in more than 65 languages", said on the XBMC website.[1]

XBMC Streaming Mini HTPC TV Box Player

XBMC enables some of innovators develop and create smart TV box based on XBMC, which can make regular TVs become smart TVs in a very low price. One of these products is XBMC Streaming Mini HTPC TV Box Player that is created by a company called Matricom.

Proprietary Software Vendors

Open source also brings large impacts for proprietary software companies. Proprietary software companies spend lots of time and efforts to develop their software. They also cost lots of money to apply patents for their products in order to make them “secret” and therefore earn money from the licensing fees or the sales of the products .

However, new startups are able to relay on the power of open source community and develop products that provide similar functionality as proprietary software. In addition, because of the collective efforts of open source community, most of those these substitutable products can be put into market quickly and downloaded free through the Internet. More importantly, these products are debugged and updated frequently because of the worldwide developers' contribution. Therefore, big companies are losing their competitive advantages quickly, and facing a threat that they may fall behind the market if they are unable to develop new competitive advantage in software market and keep up with the competition.

For instance, smart TV box that building with XBMC create a threat to cable television companies. By buying a 150 dollars XBMC TV box, users are able to make their TV become smart TV and enjoy lots of TV shows and movies free with unlimited time. In comparison with cable TV, users need to pay $40 to $120 subscription fees monthly in order to watch those channels. Undoubtedly, there will be an inclination of cable TVs since more and more people will purchase smart TV box instead of paying monthly subscription fees.

An Open Letter to Hobbyists

Lots of companies fall into a choice between embracing open source and pursuing more patents. One of these companies is Microsoft. In 1967, the CEO of Microsoft censured hobbyist for using Microsoft's Altair Basic program without paying the product. In Bill Gate’s letter, he questioned "Who can afford to do professional work for nothing? What hobbyist can put 3-man years into programming, finding all bugs, documenting his product and distribute for free?"[2] In 2001, former Windows chief Jim Allchin said open source is “an intellectual-property destroyer”.[3] Also, the former Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer described Linux as “cancer” that “attaches itself in an intellectual property sense to everything it touches”.[4]


Nowadays, the “cancer”, Linux, has 2000 developers worldwide submits their code and generate more functional and user-friendly products to attract more and more users. Lots of startups and ventures have decided to use Linux operating system and run open-source software on it, which help these new companies save a large amount of operation cost and won't affect any productive of them.

By facing more and more challenges that open-source software bring, Microsoft has finally decide to embrace open source. In 2006, Microsoft launched a beta version of CodePlex, an open-source project community that allows engineers and computer scientists to create projects and share them with the world, and also allow people to download open-source software from the website.[2] In 2012, Microsoft created Microsoft Open Technologies, Inc., (MS Open Tech), "a wholly owned subsidiary of Microsoft Corporation to advance Microsoft’s investment in openness including interoperability, open standards and open source".[5]

Microsoft Openness indicates that Microsoft realizes how important of openness that open source brings and their willingness to embrace open source. Microsoft "has changed as a company and is becoming more open in the way that we work with and collaborate with others in the industry, in how we listen to customers, and in our approach to the cloud. We contribute to and partner with open source communities and promote interoperability to make it easier and less costly for customers to develop and manage mixed IT environments. We actively participate in the standards setting process and support established and emerging standards in our products."[6]

Individuals

Open source speeds up the innovation process, and more and more products are developed to tailor customers’ specific needs. These products come to the market in a short time, and individuals have more options to choose their products.

The other benefit that Open source brings to individuals is “open education”. Increasingly, developers are working on open source projects, which at the same time provides them on-the-job training experience. In other words, open source generate more opportunities for lots of people, including programmers and developers, to improve their skills by sharing and learning each other’s work, which also leads to more and more companies decide to participate in open source projects in order to attract and retain talents, such as software engineers and developer.

The Future of Open Source

Profound Impact on Industry

We are seeing the government and education sectors increasingly incorporate open source platforms as the foundation for key initiatives. Open source technologies enable organizations to achieve high levels of agility in a cost effective manner.

As far as technology goes, governments seem to the least associated with it. But open source is like an oasis in a funding desert that promises savings and efficiencies. Pentagon integrated an open source approach in its tactical systems years ago, supporting troops on the ground. Following the Pentagon, the US Defense Department (DOD) has been pushing itself toward open source solutions with no licensing costs in order to cut costs, share information and facilitate fixes quicker.[7] And this is certainly just one instance of DOD’s implementation of open-source technologies, but it represents the trend of increasing recognition and adoption of open source initiatives. But concerns remains and not everyone agrees that open-source should be the new-go-to solution in the government sector despite changing fiscal and digital realities.

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) is the prime example of how the education sector has been evolving open source. Google will lend its expertise and powerful infrastructure to an effort aimed at creating an open platform for online education named MOOC.org, where any interested organization can create and publish online classes.[8] Working with Google’s world-class engineers and technology will enable us to adcance online, on-campus and blended learning experiences faster and more effectively than ever before. But will the open source based education system completely replace the traditional education system, especially on the post-secondary level, is an intriguing question to think of.

In the Finance sector, the question arises that are we witnessing or will we witness an open source finance revolution. The mainstream financial system contains extensive restricts and limitations on the right to fork, the right to break away needs to be instilled into the design of any alternatives too. It is a possibility that Bitcoin will be challenging the national fiat currencies and crow funding will be a prevalent means of financing. It seems that the financial revaluation that champions open source spirit is to create meaningful options for people. And as these options emerge, the infrastructure, norms and cultural acceptance for a more connected, creative, open financial system may begin to emerge and coalesce into reality.[9]

The Engine for the Internet of Things

Open source is more than just an actual level play field. It is the engine that powers the technology innovation and is the game changer for the Internet of Things. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defines the Internet of Things as a “global infrastructure for the information society enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving, interoperable information and communication technologies.”[10]

Internet of Things

Although rich with promises, the Internet of Things has been accused of being more hype than reality. The reason is that there is no consumer electronics vendor large enough to force the communication among the various electronics across brands. Such communication requires interoperability and extensibility that can be only achieved by open source initiatives. Without such an interoperability, consumer devices and electronic appliances won’t be able to recognize each other and communicate.

Open source’s rapid iterations and ease of contributions are viewed as the right framework to help overcome the Internet of Things’inherent complexity, effectively address its security, privacy and trust challenges and spur its growth. Last December the Linus Foundation created the AllSeen Alliance and put it under its open source umbrella. The AllSeen Alliance is launched with the supports from major vendors including LG Electronics and AT&T Digital Life.[11] The emergence of new communities as such has the method, the process and the clout to drive the electronics industry toward a true interoperability. And it is promising that such efforts will bring interoperability to the Internet of Things.

But as promising as it might seem, the realization of the Internet of Things is still facing tremendous challenges. The mega-vendors like Samsung and Apple that are dominating the market won’t be jumping on this particular bandwagon and are large enough to frustrate the process by building an Internet of Things mostly around their products. As a result, the earlier that’s acknowledged and facilitated, the better for everyone.

References

  1. XBMC About. (n.d.). http://www.xbmc.org/. [online] Retrieved from http://xbmc.org/about/ [Accessed: August 2,2014].
  2. An Open Letter To Hobbiyist (1976). [online] Retrieved from http://www.blinkenlights.com/classiccmp/gateswhine.html [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  3. A Response to Jim Allchin's Comments (2001). [online] Retrieved from http://www.oreillynet.com/manila/tim/stories/storyReader$167 [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  4. Ballmer: “Linux is a cancer” (2001). [online] Retrieved from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/06/02/ballmer_linux_is_a_cancer/ [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  5. Microsoft Open Technologies. [online] Retrieved from http://msopentech.com/what-we-do/ [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  6. Microsoft Openess. [online] Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/openness/default.aspx#opensource/openstory [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  7. Has open source officially taken off at DOD?. (2013). http://fcw.com/home.aspx [online] Retrieved from http://fcw.com/Articles/2013/11/19/DOD-open-source.aspx?Page=1 [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  8. Google joins open-source online education project Open edX(2013). Network World. [online] Retrieved from http://www.networkworld.com/article/2169870/software/google-joins-open-source-online-education-project-open-edx.html[Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  9. Are we witnessing an open source finance revolution?. (2013). ROAR Magazine. [online] Retrieved from http://roarmag.org/2013/12/brett-scott-open-source-finance/ [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
  10. New ITU standards define the Internet of Things and provide the blueprints for its development. (2012). ITU. [online] Retrieved from http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/newslog/New+ITU+Standards+Define+The+Internet+Of+Things+And+Provide+The+Blueprints+For+Its+Development.aspx [Accessed: August 2, 2014].
  11. Open source challenges a proprietary Internet of Things. (2014). http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9246724/Open_source_challenges_a_proprietary_Internet_of_Things [Accessed: July 28th, 2014].
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