Social Media Advertising

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Social Media Advertising is the process businesses use to increase customer awareness through producing advertisements on social media websites and platforms. Social media advertising focuses on creating attention-catching content that a target audience identifies with. With enough humour, emotional appeal or interest, the content impels the audience member to further share the ad with other consumers in their social network. Successful content that are shared quickly and far across different networks are coined as ‘viral’.

Social media advertising is rapidly changing as platforms are constantly changing and new ones are emerging. As social media usage becomes increasingly popular and more mobile, they become a lifestyle tool that serves many different needs in one central location. Banking, shopping and networking can all be performed from social media platforms around the world. The integration of E-Commerce and social media sites has proven to be a successful business model in China and may be an indicator of where social media is headed in North America.

The following are a few key takeaways in this topic. Social Media Advertising is:

  • Not Free: To establish your business using social media is free, but to truly utilize it in order to understand and engage with your customer does not come cheap.
  • The Wild Wild West: Just like big data and machine learning, social media advertising is still at its infancy stage. Brands are struggling in having a good understanding on how to use it effectively.
  • Difficult to Understand: Businesses now need to not only know their customers to a higher personal degree than ever, they need to know what decisions to make with the massive amount of information they have. This is further complicated when the landscape is constantly evolving.
  • Constantly Evolving: As social media continues to change, learning how to effectively utilize it to advertise will be an iterative and constant effort.
  • Increasingly Important: With more customers becoming more dependent on social media over traditional media channels, the importance of utilizing this resource will increase.


History of Advertising

Advertising has been prevalent for hundreds of years. It started in the 1700's with the first print ad, and continued with billboards, radio, TV, and other advertising methods. Online advertising began with banner ads on websites and has now evolved into many sophisticated and targeted ways of advertising. The availability of personal data to marketers in social networks has made social media advertising a very targeted, strategic way for advertisers to communicate branded messages to their target audiences.

The shift to Web 2.0 changed marketing dramatically. Moving from push ads with a one-way channel towards interactive ads with a two-way communication channel, where marketers engage their target audience and receive feedback on their brand and products. With the rise of social media, advertisers not only have a place to communicate to customers, but customers now have a channel to communicate directly to brands. The change to Web 2.0 means advertisers now have to communicate on a friendly 1 to 1 level with customers and be open to answering questions and complaints. Companies need to be much more transparent as modern consumers have much more knowledge and resources to see past false claims which may have gone undetected in the past.

Social Media Platforms

Popular Social Media Platforms in North America

The most important and popular social media platforms for advertising in North America are Facebook, Youtube (owned by Google), Twitter, and Instagram.

  • Facebook is traditionally the most popular platform with over 1.49 billion monthly active users [1]. Users can post pictures and videos, create events, join groups, play games, and much more.
  • Youtube is the world's largest video sharing platform. With more than a billion users, more than 300 hours of video are uploaded onto the platform every minute, resulting in billions of views per day [2].
  • Twitter was the first massively popular micro-blogging site. Famous for its 140 character limit, this platform boats 304 million monthly active users [3]
  • Instagram is a photo sharing network that boasts over 300 million monthly active users. This platform was bought by Facebook for $1 billion USD in 2012 [4]

Buying Advertisements

On Facebook, advertisements are bought on the Ads Manager or Power Editor platforms. A page administrator has the ability boost a sponsored post right from their own corporate page. For a fee, Facebook will push this ad to a designated number of users, however, targeting options are limited. In Ads Manager, there is a wide range of targeting options that range from geographic to psychographic targeting. This method of ad creation has much more targeting options than simply boosting ads. The administrator can set parameters around location, age, interests, behaviors, and other criteria to narrow in on a specific Facebook audience. Power Editor is the advanced version of Ads Manager and includes functions such as using pixels, custom audiences, and other technical ways of setting advertisements. Ad units on Facebook include News Feed ads, Right Rail ads, Mobile App Downloads, and many others.

On Twitter, advertisements are bought on the Twitter advertising platform. Administrators can target by location, interests, keywords, and other criteria. Twitter advertising has some advanced options such as mobile carrier targeting and TV targeting. Similar to Facebook, advertisers can set up campaigns and run them daily or over a set period of time. Twitter has many different ad units, but the most popular one is the in-stream ad unit.

On Youtube, advertisements are bought through Google. There are different specifications for different ad units, and most of these are specific to video advertisements. A popular ad unit that many people recognize is the "True-View Pre-Roll" ad unit, which is the video before a Youtube clip plays that is skippable after 5 seconds.

Instagram advertisements will be launching within 2015, and will soon be available to all advertisers.

Examples of Successful Social Media Ads

KFC WOW Price Menu

KFC WOW Price Menu

The KFC WOW Price Menu campaign was very successful in not only generating buzz but also emphasizing the low price points using augmented reality. The campaign was centered around the misconception people in India had about how great tasting food was correlated with its price. KFC was able to reverse this expectation of price vs. quality in a fun way through creating an application that scans paper bills. The mobile or tablet device would detect the value of the scanned money and then populate various KFC menu items that the note could purchase. The application gained over 35,000 downloads, over 150,000 hits on the KFC WOW Price Menu microsite, and was featured on popular print publications such as fonearena, The Economic Times, and Mid Day. The app was also recommended on iTune’s “What’s Hot” list and reached the #1 spot in the Food and Drink category.

IKEA: Experience the power of a bookbook™

Another successful campaign was a satirical ad IKEA created on one of the most valued brands to date, Apple Inc. IKEA presented its latest catalogue - the bookbook - in the same simple and iconic narrative Apple uses when featuring its iPad tablet. Using humour and wit, IKEA was able to overcome the difficulty of making “a traditional marketing tool like a catalogue seem special”[1]. For example, they glorified very traditional and low-tech features such as using ‘tactile touch’ to turn pages with “no lag”. Aside from being mentioned on various websites, the video has received over 17.6 million views on Youtube.


Under Armour: I Will What I Want

The “I Will What I Want” social media campaign gained global recognition from winning the 2015 Cannes Cyber Grand Prix, an annual festival gathering worldwide advertising professionals to celebrate creativity in brand communication [2]. The social media campaign features of a video of Gisele Bündchen, a Brazilian fashion model and actress. As she works out with intensity in a grey concrete room, live streams of social media comments surrounding her partnership with Under Armour and herself flashes onto the walls. Many are suppressive and undermine her, such as “She’s a model not an athlete." Despite the comments, she works out looking unfazed and determined. Under Armour was very successful in utilizing social media feeds in a creative way, while instilling empowerment in viewers.


Social Media Failures and Recovery

myNYPD Campaign Backlash


In 2014, the New York Police Department attempted to revamp their image by inviting the public to post their favorite photos featuring the police officers and the hashtag #myNYPD. The campaign quickly backfired as thousands of users posted images of police brutality [3]. The campaign went viral, receiving over 10,000 posts an hour at its peak, most of which were negative. Very soon, other users residing outside of New York posted pictures of their police departments committing violent acts while using the myNYPD hashtag. This consequently yielded international attention and further tarnished the New York Police Department’s reputation.

Starting an online conversation can be a two-edged sword, especially for organizations that may not be perceived positively by many members of the public. Once the conversation has started online, companies have very little control over the message. In this case, public backlash became unavoidable.


In July 2013, a video of a Fed-Ex employee throwing packages carelessly into the delivery van surfaced on Youtube. The video went viral and made customers question the level of service they were receiving from the delivery company.

However, 3 days later, Senior Vice President of Human Resources of Fed-Ex issued a statement stating that the employee in the video is no longer working for the company[4]. The swift reply of Fed-Ex was accredited as the major reason they avoided a major PR crisis from developing further and how they were able to maintain a respectable public image during the incident.

Analytics in Social Media Advertising

Funny Adobe Marketing Analytics Commercial

Definition of Analytics

Businesses use analytics to track performance and improve effectiveness of their business practices across many industries. It has been widely-adopted among many organizations as a necessity to gain insights that help create better content and capture target audiences more precisely. The web defines Analytics as "the discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data"[1]. In advertising specifically, analytics allows organizations to understand the impacts of each moving part in an advertisement. This enables them to have the ability to adjust the advertisement parts in order to achieve the maximum return from every dollar spent. It is a useful resource for advertisers which evolves the traditional creative process into a more data-driven one[2].

Advertising Cycle

Advertising Circle

Brands are constantly adjusting their strategies and approaches to capture customers' attention and engagement. The whole process works like a cycle. Analytics became the last important piece to complete the cycle which helps brands generate more eye-catching advertisements and conversations with customers.

The whole cycle starts with the creation of the advertisement. After marketers and advertisers define the audience they want to send their message to, they create the advertisement and purchase media in order to push their message to customers. Through customer surveys, focus groups, clickstream, and other techniques, marketers are able to obtain feedback of the advertisement, measurement its success, and other important data from customers. With the gathered data, marketers can perform analysis using different analytic tools, which then convert data into useful information for making decisions to improve the performance of the next advertisement.

Social Media Analytics

Social media is becoming the biggest platform for advertisement in the future. With $6.1 billion US spent on social media advertisements in 2013, BI Intelligence* predicted that the spending on social media ads will reach nearly $14 billion in 2018 [3]. The exponential growth on marketing spending indicates the need for more precise measurement and higher effectiveness in engaging customers. In addition, vast quantities of data is the result of the exploding usage of social media. Analytics ensures marketers to capture all these data and perform analysis with ease.

Aggregated vs. Individual Audience Information

Traditionally, marketers are able to measure the effectiveness of an advertisement using the Nielsen Ratings[4]. The system is widely accepted in television and radio programs to measure the total number of audience and their demographics. However, since the system can only show what the audience is viewing, Nielsen Ratings fail to capture the engagement level of each viewer, resulting in inaccurate measurements. For example, we may be able to find 25% of the viewers in Canada turned their channel to a Nike’s advertisement, but we cannot tell who are actually watching it and who are on their phone while waiting for a different show to start on that channel. The aggregated audience information will give you a broad idea of the effectiveness of the advertisement, but it lacks granular information on audience to create further customization.

Social media analytics, on the other hand, uses advanced computational technology, such as big data analytics and machine learning, to collect customer information on an individual basis. The individual audience information includes but is not limited to: personal interests, skills and talents, habits, locations, and relationships[5]. With the information, brands are able to draw a detailed picture of each individual and know exactly what our wants and needs are. This means that they can customize their advertisements to target single individuals and proactively push the advertisements to the users before they start their search.

Geolocation Targeting

Examples of Advanced Targeting Techniques

Social media analytics enables brands to stretch beyond the traditional demographic and geographic targeting methodologies and enter the realm of personalization. The following are some implications on advanced targeting alternatives[6].

  • Geolocation Targeting: Reaching an audience based on their physical location at a given moment in time
  • Interest Targeting: Reach specific audiences by looking at their personal interests. These interests can be as broad as an industry, or as specific as a product[7].
  • Behavioral Targeting: By analyzing users’ web-browsing behavior, advertisers are able to categorize them into different profiles which will receive different advertisements according to their behavior[8].
  • Lookalike Targeting: Reach new groups of people who are similar to brands’ existing customers. This is can be based on demographics, behaviour, interests and geographic location. [9].

Measurement Metrics

Reach Metrics

Molson Canadian promo

Reach measures the spread of a social media conversation. On its own, reach can help the marketer understand the context for the ad content. It tells marketers how far the content disseminates and how big is the audience is for a certain message. However, reach alone does not tell you everything. Reach becomes very powerful when compared to other engagement metrics. This metric is often used as the denominator in most social media measurement equations.

An Impression is the countable source when an ad is fetched. Clicking or not is not taken into account. Each time an ad is fetched, it is counted as one impression. For example, when one scrolls through Facebook and sees an ad, that would be considered one reach and one impression. If the same person logs on as a different user and sees the exact ad, it remains at one reach but two impressions. Thus, reach is a unique measure though impressions would be easier to collect.

Organic impressions are the number of times a piece of content was displayed in a newsfeed or web page to direct followers. Earned impressions occur when a social media content is so popular, it receives additional views and publicity from those that are not direct followers as a result of people sharing the ad. With enough buzz and spread, the advertisement becomes viral.

An example of a social media ad that gained high amounts of organic and earned impressions is a hockey ad from Molson Canadian. The ad originally received 400,000 impressions as a result of users following Molson Canadian's Facebook and Twitter accounts. However, people liked it so much that they shared the ad on other sites such as Reddit, 9GAG, as well as other popular accounts on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This resulted in an additional 5 million earned impressions.

Resonance Metrics

After a company reaches out with an ad or campaign, the respondents or targeted audience can now initiate the second part of the campaign. The second goal for a company is for their ad to resonate with anyone who sees it. For example, on Facebook if a certain ads content resonates with a user, they could like the ad, comment on it, and finally share it with their own personal circle. On Twitter, they can retweet it, reply to a tweet and favourite it. Lastly, on Youtube one can measure how long a person has viewed a video as well as the time spend on a video and the normal like/share metrics.

Reaction Metrics

Brands can reach out to marketing data companies like Neilson, InsightWest and VisionCritical to conduct tests and run surveys for the statistical effectiveness of their social media marketing campaigns. Companies can study data by using:

  • Ad Recall: Ad recall is a measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents is exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time is asked if they remember the ad.
  • Brand Awareness: Marketing data companies survey individuals with questions regarding ads that were shown and how that draws upon the brand message that it was intended to show. Companies who exemplify great brand awareness include Nike, Starbucks and Toyota.
  • Message Association: Marketing data companies survey a sample after showing that group the same ad. Associations in regards to their brand is asked then statistically measured.

Ethical Issues

Unreported Endorsements

Interviewed Walmart Employee

In 2006, Walmart and a fake blog called 'Walmarting Across America' received great backlash and negative publicity. The ‘flog’ (fake blog) was about an American couple named Jim and Laura, who planned a RV trip to visit their children in Pennsylvania and North Carolina. To save money, they parked their vehicle at Walmart's 'park-for-free' parking lots throughout their journey. Jim and Laura also interviewed Walmart employees at every store and wrote about how everyone was very satisfied with their jobs [10].

But upon further investigation, it was unveiled that an organization called Working Families for Walmart paid for the couples’ entire trip, helped them set up the blog, and altered their route to start in Las Vegas. Working Families for Walmart is an advocacy group created by Walmart and their PR firm Edelman to promote a positive portrayal of Walmart. This organization was also created because Walmart faced great opposition from union-funded such as Wake Up Walmart and Walmart Watch [11]. The grey area of this scandal was that the blog had never disclosed that this was was a PR stunt and that the writers were sponsored bloggers. Thus, people believed that the stories had no relation to Walmart.

According to the Canadian Marketing Association (CMA), unreported endorsements goes against marketing code of ethics and standards of practice [12]. Although these guidelines are well-understood for traditional product endorsements, to what extent one should make it clear that they are receiving financial compensation on social media is not as well defined. However after this PR scandal, in 2009 the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has updated its guidelines on endorsements to now cover social media. The FTC states that any form of compensation given to bloggers on social media must be disclosed [13].

The internet has increasingly become the go-to hub to find information; many consumers especially seek opinion and feedback on products such as make-up and electronics. Although consumers need to practice due diligence in researching about the products, this does not excuse businesses needing to be transparent about relationships they form with their brand and product ambassadors. A survey conducted by the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) found that 52% of markets “felt that dishonest or unethical behavior by brands is putting the value of social media as a marketing tool at risk” [14], and 82% of marketers felt that businesses will continue to employ questionable actions until there’s a threat of fines of legal action.

American Apparel promotion

Bandwagoning Tragedies

Whenever tragedies occur, social media can be very responsive in generating and spreading awareness about the issue. However, many businesses see this publicity as an opportunity to “bandwagon” the conversation by pushing promotions that are themed after the tragedy on social media.

One of the most well-known incidences was when Hurricane Sandy hit in 2012 in eastern United States, eastern Canada, and other neighbouring areas. The disaster resulted in 117 deaths and millions of people left without power [15].

American Apparel emailed its consumers about a sale where affected areas are eligible for 20% their clothing, and prompted people to type in SANDYSALE in the online checkout. Although they received great backlash online from this, they also never apologized for the incident [16]

Some other businesses that also had Sandy-themed promotions through social media sites were GAP and Jonathan Adler. Alder has promotional tags encouraging people to “storm their site” and also had SANDY and STUCKINSIDE promotional codes. While #Sandy was trending on Twitter and other social media sites, GAP used the hashtag to promote their sales. This was received with negative press as the company was using a grave situation for their own financial benefit.

Future Trends and Outlook

Advertising Analytics 2.0 and Beyond

Minority Report (2002) Trailer

The traditional analytical methods that focus on historic data and quarterly review can no longer carry the weight of business needs. The huge amount of data generated by users and the requirement for real time analysis is pushing us to enter the age of analytics 2.0 where terabytes of real time data are processed every day. Cloud computing, big data, and cheaper data storage enable our capability to build powerful predictive tools.[1]. With Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence on the plate, we will soon be able to hand over data analysis completely to computers to obtain the optimal decisions of how to design ads and assist the creative process.

On the other hand, privacy will become one of the biggest concerns with the advancement of analytical power. Web activities already became an extension of people's personalities, ideologies, and deepest secrets. All these different sets of data are linked to one another which makes re-identification feasible[2]. This means that in a world where all data is increasingly available to private firms, the possibility of a person remaining anonymous is close to null. This phenomenon can create many controversial issues. The issue of having a world with no privacy and being accused of crimes based on data was demonstrated by the 2002 Science-fiction film, Minority Report. The film demonstrated a world where technology is able to predict perfectly how people will behave. This way, anyone who has intent to commit a crime can be stopped even before the action was taken. The film narrated a horrifying dystopia where people’s free choice was eliminated but also raised the ethical discussion on how far should we push the limit of technology.



The future of social media advertising may not explicitly use ads to promote products but sell them as well. E-Commerce tools and social media are merging together to form a new wave of platforms some have referred to as social commerce or S-Commerce. Companies advertising on social media will be able to seamlessly integrate direct buying channels into their campaigns and online marketing efforts.

As platforms move towards a Social Commerce model, companies can integrate their social advertising efforts and sales in a smooth manner. Advantages of merging E-Commerce functionality with social media platforms include:

  • Increased conversion rates from social media advertisements
  • Higher calculability of ROI on social media marketing
  • More convenient purchasing options for social media users
  • Increase of impulse purchases
  • Improved social aspect to online shopping
  • Expansion of information for advertisers to use on consumer purchasing habits on social media

The success of social media advertising is ultimately determined by its ability to create conversions and sales. The merging of direct sales and social media advertisements will provide companies with higher chance of converting on social advertisements .

Peer-to-Peer Money Transfers

The emergence of Peer-to-Peer cash transfers through social media platforms are a possible indicator that social media is moving towards E-Commerce functionality. In late 2014, Snapchat debuted their money transfer tool Snapcash. This was achieved while working in partnership with mobile payment company Square [3].

A few months later, Facebook officially launched their own Peer-to-Peer cash transfer system on their Facebook Messenger application. As of August 2015, both tools require a Visa or Mastercard debit card issued by a US bank and a minimum age of 18. [4]. This feature has enormous potential to change the business models of social media sites. They now possess the tools necessary to implement E-Commerce abilities. Consequently this can change how brands reach their consumers through social media platforms and E-Commerce altogether.

In-Stream Purchases and One-Click Buying

Facebook’s introduction of payments via Facebook Messenger is likely the inaugural step into the creation of more on-platform payment options. In July 2014, Facebook began testing a “buy” button to appear on sponsored posts in the news feed[5]. Once the social media platform has your payment details already registered, it is easy for them to create purchasing options for advertisements. This would allow consumers to buy a product without leaving their news feed, simply by clicking on the available button.

One of the greatest benefits of one-click purchasing for businesses is that it increases the number of impulse spending. Streamlining the purchasing process to be fast and simple will help increase the probability of conversion. Amazon and iTunes are examples of how simplicity to purchase products leads to sales. A study conducted by Rackspace in 2012 found that almost one-fifth of respondents felt that mobile devices have increased their tendency to make impulse purchases [6]. If brands are able to implement purchase options into their viral social media campaigns, their conversion and ROI through social media will substantially increase.

Facebook and Twitter are both attempting to build streamlined purchase options for users to easily purchase items that appear on their news feed or twitter streams. Advertisers and brands are beginning to integrate purchase options to their advertisements in order to increase conversion rates and ROI.

With data on consumer demographics, interests, online habits and their networks of friends, Facebook is well positioned to capitalize greatly on its large network of users such an E-Commerce-like offering.

The Future of Social Media Looks to China

E-Commerce Sales in China vs. USA: 2009-2015

The integration of E-Commerce tools into social media advertising has been occurring in China for a few years. Many North American e-marketers are looking East to get a glimpse of the future of E-Marketing and social media advertising over the next five years.

In 2011, Chinese Micro-blogging Weibo began offering users a buy feature directly on user’s news feeds. E-Commerce giant, Alibaba later acquired 18% of Weibo in 2013 and integrated their AliPay service and E-Commerce functionality into the social media platform [7]. This created a platform where consumers are be able to purchase products directly from brands through social media channels, integrating E-Commerce with social functionality.

WeChat Stores

WeChat: The Power of Mobility and Social Media Advertising

The increases of mobile phones globally will consequently drive up the usage of mobile advertisements and mobile social media campaigns. Inspired by WhatsApp, WeChat takes the functionality of a messaging service much further. China’s largest mobile messaging service has made leaps in bringing their social functionality and E-Commerce together. In 2014, 15% of Wechat was acquired by, China’s second largest E-Commerce website[8]. In their first 2 days of operation as an S-Commerce platform, $50 million USD in sales were made. This evolved from simply a social media platform to a lifestyle tool where consumers can go for shopping, reading product reviews, connecting with others and sharing their experiences. Consequently many brands and advertisers are moving towards this platform for its wide range of usages and large consumer reach.

Burberry WeChat Campaign

The mobility and geo-locational technologies of WeChat provide unique advertising opportunities for companies trying to connect with consumers. WeChat’s partnership with DiDi DaChe, China’s largest taxicab hailing application has given WeChat users the ability to find, book and pay for taxis within close proximity through the application[1]. Taxi companies are able to send their followers messages to receive discounts and users are able to communicate with drivers through voice messaging.

The integration of many services has increased WeChat’s popularity, increasing from 100 million in 2012 to 549 million in 2015 [2]. The large number of users and growing popularity has made it an ideal platform for advertisers and companies. Nike, Burberry, Uniqlo, McDonalds and Pepsi are all advertising on the platform. Through WeChat, brands communicate with followers through one to one messages. They can message followers with special offers and exclusive content. Therefore, companies are able to socialize with consumers and sell products at the same time, making WeChat an ideal advertising platform.

Burberry on WeChat

In 2014, Burberry launched a successful mobile social media campaign for their London in Shanghai fashion show. Through WeChat, Burberry was able to send personal messages, audio clips, behind the scenes video to those which follow the company online.

The campaign was met with positive reception and is a model for advertisers of Western companies moving onto the Chinese social media platform.

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality and S-Commerce

Augmented reality will add another dimension of experiences that are used in social media campaigns. As social media moves into an S-Commerce business model, augmented reality will play a large role of how businesses reach customers and increase sales globally.

Imagine the ability to view furniture, jewelry, clothes or electronics online before you decided to buy them. The future of advertisements on social media will allow consumers to not only buy directly on the platform, but also view the product and share their experience with friends online or ask for their opinions.

On the Ray-Ban website ( there is a virtual mirror which allows customers to try on different pairs of sunglasses. This technology, integrated with social media would provide interesting campaign opportunities to gain brand exposure online. Prospective buyers could share pictures of themselves wearing glasses online with friends and encourage their friends to provide feedback on whether they should purchase the glasses. The campaigns could be done for pure entertainment, or for consumers to gain familiarity with products and purchase them. The ability for consumers to try out products from home in a fun and no-pressure environment will be essential if advertisers want to increase their online sales. The KFC WOW campaign mentioned earlier is another clever example of how augmented reality can be implemented into social media.

Silo-ed databases of current social media platforms

Linked Data and Semantic Web

The semantic web and linked data will only increase the opportunities for social media advertising. As social media sites move from silo-ed databases towards a networked set of databases over the Internet [1], advertisers will have access to a large amount of aggregated data. The ability to access consumer data across multiple social media platforms will provide advertisers with more information to effectively segment and target the population.

The mass amounts of data will enable social media companies to increase the number of services that are offered to users. Advertisers will have an abundance of new opportunities to connect with consumers more intuitively. With data on birthdates, location, consumer purchasing history and payment information, social media platforms would have the ability to give product offerings to specific individuals at a given time and place; increasing the effectiveness of advertisements.


  1. Berners-Lee, T. (March 13, 2009) Tim Berners-Lee: The next Web of open, linked data. Retrieved July 8, 2015 from
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