Technology & Dating

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The world of dating has evolved dramatically with the advent of new technologies. Dating sites and applications help people find potential partners and establish new relationships nowadays as the norm. Currently, the market is saturated with many types of dating sites and apps that target specific groups of people. Users have the opportunity to get in touch with many people they would otherwise have never got the chance to meet and for some, online dating drastically increases their chances of finding a match. On the other hand, there are also various implications. From an IT point of view, it may be a huge breach of security and lead to serious loss of personal data or finances. From a social point of view, it may include fake profiles from dangerous people behind the screen and different types of attacks including scams, phishing, and blackmail. Despite these threats, online dating is on the rise worldwide and has become a significant business powerhouse.

How Technology Has Changed the Dating World

Before the Internet became a normal part of our lives, people usually had to find their partner in person. Couples were most likely to meet at school, at university, at work or at a bar where they were introduced by their friends [1]. Since the 1960s, the first attempts to find partners with the help of technology emerged. One of the first instances can be in the United States when Harvard’s students developed the matchmaking service in 1965 named Operation Match [2]. The whole process worked as follows. Firstly, students who were interested in blind dates, answered questionnaires about themselves (name, university, address, age) and their idea of a perfect date. Subsequently, they had to pay $3 so that an IBM 7090 computer could analyze their answers and found at least five potential matches to each other [3]. Following this, they received names, phone numbers and addresses of their matches so that they could contact them easily. The service skyrocketed in popularity among students as there were more than 100,000 records in the computer memory [4]. It was a remarkable number, considering the fact that the Internet was still not used at that time and widespread viral marketing did not exist.


In the 1980s, Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) allowed people to chat online, which is a system that can write messages to unspecified PC communication network subscribers and freely retrieve messages from others. This world’s first personal-level network was created by Christiansen in the United States in 1978. BBS informed many unspecified members of the bulletin board by posting a message on a bulletin board with a particular topic, and messages written by other members were also free to view [5].


Figure 1. Meet market in the United States - how couples meet in decades, by The Economist.

In the 1990s, the Internet boom started and it was also a moment when the world of dating has begun to change. Suddenly people did not have to go out to meet someone. Instead, they could simply create a profile on a dating site. Figure 1 shows how the meet market has transformed in the United States since the 1940s. Most of the earlier dating options are in decline besides getting to know at the bar or the restaurant. On the other hand, online dating has been on the rise rapidly for both heterosexual and same-sex couples [6]. One of the first dating sites created was It was founded in 1995 and it still operates in twenty four countries around the world [7]. Afterwards, many other dating sites were quickly established to compete for market share. Every site tries to differentiate its services to provide value for its users and generate profit.


In 2004, OkCupid was launched by four Harvard students for which users were able to create a list of bio prompts and questions to describe how likely to get along with potential matches [8]. Along OkCupid’s birth and the market entrance of smartphones, new opportunities for dating have emerged again. Users could start downloading dating apps on their smartphones and use them at any time remotely. With the arrival of Web 2.0, social networking apps became to be used widely since 2007. Skout is an application that originally started as a social networking app but the developer added dating service after he realized most people use apps to find the opportunities to have dates [9]. Furthermore, other apps such as OkCupid and Zoosk started to combine social networking with online dating service in order to help users connect to different people and provide them with more possibilities of dating. Tinder, as one of the best known and most used dating applications, entered the market in 2012 and will be described in detail in the following sections.

Types of Dating Apps and Sites

As more people are seeking love online these days, there are a number of dating apps and sites emerging that people can access regardless of sex or age. Both dating apps and dating sites offer online social media platforms that users can utilize to set personal profiles and communicate with others in order to find partners that match them the best. It seems there is no significant difference between those two services, however, they are slightly different in respect to their user’s objectives to approach online dating services. For example, people who are willing to use dating apps are more inclined to enjoy casual dating than a serious relationship rather than people who make use of dating sites [10]. Generally, dating sites have more complex search features that would be burdensome to use on a mobile phone but allow users different ways of finding better matches who share mutual interests and values. Users can have a variety of choices with online dating service. Here are some representative dating apps and sites that are mostly used by people worldwide.

Dating Apps


Tinder is one of the earliest “swiping” applications and was developed in 2012 and has hit 1 billion “swipes” per day since 2014 [11]. You can see other people’s photos, swipe to the right to show a crush, to the left to skip and proceed to the next person. In addition, you can read bios and even connect to Spotify to show off your musical interests. Since Tinder offers search functionality with filters, you can find a person with a particular style when you are not even online [12]. This includes filtering for location range, age, and sexual orientation.


Grindr is an online dating service application for gay and bisexual men. People who installed Similar to Tinder, Grindr uses location to search for other users within the specified radius of distance. You can see the profiles and photos created and uploaded by other users. If you like the searched information, you can easily meet the person on the spot. You can also make use of its functions for free or by subscribing to its premium service called “Grindr Xtra” to expand your dating app experience [13].


OkCupid started as a friendship and social networking website that features multiple-choice questions in order to match members in 2004. It mainly involves communication including instant messages and emails, and is supported by advertisements and users who are paying for the premium plan for which advertisements do not appear. It combined social networking service with online dating service in 2007, and launched its mobile application version in 2009 [14].

Coffee Meets Bagel

Coffee Meets Bagel is an online dating app carefully crafted to appeal to women. It includes the function to limit the number of profiles users can interact with each day and offer unique ice-breaker information for matches. It was featured on ABC’s “Shark Tank” and Mark Cuban suggested the founders to purchase the entire company but they refused [15].


Hinge was founded by Justin McLeod in 2012. Users can express their interest in a potential match by liking the person’s profile or commenting on a photo or other aspects of the person’s profile. The functions such as detailed profiles, prompts, limited likes, liking content, see who likes you, provided by the app, are from the mission of Hinge, the ways we (Hinge users) are “Designed to be deleted” [16].

Dating Sites is an online dating service website launched in 1995, offering connections to users from over 24 countries. It has a user-friendly interface and advanced search features based on match words, reverse matches, daily mutual matches, singled out, smart search, date spark, favorites, new user highlights, location-based searching, and highlight messages. It also supports mobile options, MatchMobile, and the quiz and games to let users interact with other members [17].


eHarmony was launched in 2000. By asking customers comprehensive questions, they can build relationships with each other, which enables multidimensional compatibility. It creates 15 million global matches everyday with 60 million global registrants. eHarmony manages vast amounts of data by utilizing Oracle Marketing Cloud, and it meets customer’s satisfaction by sending personalized mails according to each customer’s actions. A feature called “The Two Of You Together” allows users to see the matches who score at an advanced level of compatibility and why they get that score [18].


Zoosk is an online dating site that helps singles find the right people and relationships by personalizing their dating experience. Zoosk’s Behavioral Matchmaking technology continuously studies the behavior patterns of more than 35 million members to find better matched members in real time. It has an integration with Facebook community that enables new users to sign up for the website without demanding efforts [19].


PlentyOfFish is a Canadian semi-free online dating service. It’s basically free to browse and message singles but generates revenue through advertisements and premium memberships plans. It has some quizzes from Relationship Chemistry Predictor that measure the five aspects of a person’s personality: chemistry, needs, psychological, keeper, and sex. Profile pages of PlentyOfFish also allow users to include detailed information that others will not find on other dating sites to specify each one’s intention of using the sites [20].


EliteSingles is for those who want a serious relationship and most of its members have above-average education backgrounds. It covers various ranges of matchmaking such as professional dating, black dating, Jewish dating, Muslim dating, Over 50 dating, lesbian dating, and Latin dating. It is using intelligent matchmaking algorithm to help thousands of singles find love through the site. EliteSingles has both website and mobile application versions [21].

Algorithm of Online Dating Apps

Online dating apps mostly use AI algorithm to match new users based on factors such as agreeableness level, closeness preference, romantic passion range, extroversion or introversion level, importance of spirituality, and the level of optimism or happiness [22]. The algorithm also collects new user’s data such as location, height, religious information and learns from user’s actions to draw matches that are closest to personal preference. For instance, if there is a user whose preference is no piercings except for earrings, the AI algorithm will not show him/her the profiles of people with piercings, which means it predicts each user’s preference precisely. Nevertheless, there are several existing bias problems of the algorithm. OKCupid justified there is a racial bias that reveals in the dating preferences and behavior of users, which proved that Black women and Asian men were additionally discriminated against in online dating environments, and this was assumed “bad” and kept the lower ranks on dating apps when AI algorithm clusters profiles and information [23]. Other than dire consequences, on the other hand, once a user evaluates a date with Caucasian was great, the algorithm will obtain data and regard the dates with Caucasian as decent ones, and this can also be one of the biases AI might cause. Information entered by users naturally contains each user’s subjectivity, and the providers who provide online dating service programs are involved in balancing the objectivity of algorithms, however, this will also be a sort of bias whether the intention is good or bad. Thus, it is useful to have recommended matches based on AI algorithm but users need to be aware of the complexity of biases and try to take on an objective outlook towards online dating apps. In summary, AI algorithms are powerful tools to connect the right people, however it is not a perfect system.

Privacy, Security, and Data Leaks

Online dating apps and sites collect user’s personal information such as name, race, sex, age, religion, location, and conversations [24]. Through the provided information, dating apps and sites can infer people that users are interested in, people they meet up with, and even ignore friends from friends list who they barely contact. Nonetheless, as apps and sites are holding all the information of users’, voices of concern are becoming louder these days. The Guardian has reported that a Tinder user asked for a collection of personal data and it sent 800 pages of his deepest, darkest information [25]. It was not just about phone numbers and educational background but also personal interests such as the tastes of women he had contacted, which photos were uploaded and deleted on his personal social network service account, what conversations he had with other people [26]. Tinder took a stand that each user’s information is necessary to analyze individual tastes and achieve a satisfactory match for them. The data in these dating apps, which contain individuals themselves rather than personal information and identities, are expected to grow unpredictably if the data is hacked or abused.

Case Study: Ashley Madison Data Leak

One of the best known and controversial examples of data leaks was the Ashley Madison case. Ashley Madison is an online dating service that helps married people in monogamous relationships find an affair [27]. Hackers, called the Impact Team, have announced to employees on July 12, 2015 that they must shut down Ashley Madison and Established Men sites, otherwise they would release their users' data [28]. This was called Hacktivism because hackers did not like the policy of the Avid Life Media policy that owns the two sites. The company promised users to delete all their records for $19, but they didn't do so even though they received the payment [29]. As the websites have been still still in service after the threat, data was released on August 18, 2015 containing emails of clients. Second round of data leak happened on August 20, 2015, but this time hackers published source code and internal data. Subsequently, hackers began to release sensitive user data again including real names, emails, IP addresses or payment details [30]. Overall, approximately 300 GB of data was leaked that affected 35 million people. It turned out that the sites were poorly secured and the company had to pay $30 million in fines fines [31]. Moreover, users did not secured their accounts promptly because most often password was “123456” which can be broken easily and quickly [32]. This particular data leak caused many divorces, family problems, and unfortunately multiple suicides were reported as well [33]. Although Ashley Madison's service was almost unaffected as 32 million new people have registered with Ashley Madison since the hacker attack [34].

Market Share Worldwide

Revenue of online dating worldwide 2019 amounts to US$1,958 million and it has 219.8 million users, each of them increased by 11.1% and 10.8% year over year [35]. Revenue is expected to grow continuously, resulting in a market volume of US$2,471 million by 2023 as well as the number of online dating users is expected to be increasing [36]. The average annual revenue per paying user (ARPU) of the selected market is estimated to be slightly decreasing since there are more companies providing online dating service that promotes freemium, which is the most common business model with some enticing basic services offered for free along with an upsell to more advanced, paid subscriptions [37]. Most users are likely to access the basic functions and the freemium is an eye-catching strategy to induce them to enjoy the service without concerns.

Figure 2. The forecasted revenue development of the selected market (market segment, region) for each year, by Statista, 2019.
Figure 4. The average annual revenue per paying user of the selected market (market segment, region) for each year, by Statista, 2019.
Figure 3. The number of active customers (or accounts) of the selected market (market segment, region) in millions for each year, by Statista, 2019.

Revenues for Companies

Revenue Generation

To survive, maintain, and grow their dating apps, companies must find a way to generate significant revenue. There are many different methods, but four of them include subscriptions, advertisements, in-app purchases, and premium plans.


Subscriptions are when users pay a recurring fee to receive a service or a product for a specified amount of time. Generally these are in 1, 3, 6, and 12 month increments. For example, uses a subscription style business plan [38].


Advertisements are third-party or external groups paying the dating service to promote their product or service. For example, when using Tinder, an advertisement will appear as a potential match every once in a while. When users swipe right on the ad, they can inquire more information about it.

In-app Purchases

In-app purchases or microtransactions refer to purely cosmetic effects of features that allow users to differentiate themselves from non-paying users. For example, users may purchase virtual flowers, chocolate, or hearts to send to potential matches in an effort to attract them.

Premium Plans

Similar to subscriptions, premium plans are usually paid in 1, 3, 6, and 12 month increments. The difference is that subscriptions are paying to use the service, while premium plans are paying for an additional feature or perk within the service.

Case Study: Tinder

Image 1. Tinder, by Tinder.

For example, Tinder has a premium plan called “Tinder Plus” where users who purchase it can have extra features like [39]:

  • Unlimited likes
  • Rewind your last swipe
  • 5 Super Likes a day
  • 1 boost a month
  • Passport to swipe around the world
  • No advertisements

There is another premium plan called “Tinder Gold” where users can access more functions in addition to Tinder Plus features [40]:

  • All Tinder Plus features
  • See who Likes You before you swipe
  • New Top Picks every day

Tinder Plus costs $9.99/month for users under 30; $19.99/month for 30-plus [41]. It allows users to “like” others’ profiles unlimitedly, rewind their last swipes, give a chance to do 5 Super Likes a day if a user looks at someone’s profile and feel he or she stands out from everyone else, and an opportunity to do 1 Boost a month that sends their profiles near the top of their potential matches’ swiping queue for 30 minutes [42]. Also, there is no advertisement while using Tinder Plus, and users are provided with Passport to swipe around the world. Tinder Gold basically costs $29.99/month, 6-month coverage costs $18.83/month and 12-month coverage is for $12.50/month [43]. In addition to all Tinder Plus features, Tinder Gold users can access See Who Likes You function before they swipe and see how many people have liked them, receive new Top Picks every day to highlight the most swipe-worthy potential matches [44]. These premium plans assist Tinder earn revenues from users who are in need to use expanded version of dating service, and it is still maintaining the position of the number one online dating app to be purchased and downloaded.

Top Dating Apps by Revenue

Figure 5. Top U.S. Dating Apps by Revenue, by SensorTower, 2019.

According to Sensor Tower’s Store Intelligence platform, compared to Q1 2016, there are 9 more dating apps generated at least $1 million in user spending in the United States during Q1 2019 across the App Store and Google Play. In Q1 2019, nine apps exceeded $5 million and the others made a profit between $1 million and $5 million in gross. Tinder has stoutly maintained the number one spot that has earned more than $10 million every year, distantly followed by Bumble since Q1 2018, Match, PlentyOfFish, OKCupid as well [45]. On the other hand, although more people are looking for dating apps to find their matches, eMarketer research analysts predict that apps such as Tinder, Bumble, and Match will grow slower than in recent years in the US. Since the switching costs are quite low between apps, users will easily access and enter new dating app market but new users will try those kinds of apps for the first time, which implies that the rank of revenue of online dating app companies is potential to be slightly changed while the annual growth rate is gradually going stagnant. Nevertheless, the whole dating app industry regards its revenue will continue growing and there are still a bunch of populations outside the US, the amount of revenue of online dating app companies will not be frustrated with certainties as companies are expected to be ready to generate revenue by various strategies that were mentioned above. [46].

Online Dating in Canada

Approximately 2.2 million Canadians are users of dating sites and apps, of which 48% are women and 52% are men [47]. Online dating platforms are mostly used by people between 25 and 44 years old in Canada [48]. Overall, one-fifth of relationships start online and 7% of couples get married because of online dating [49]. Revenue was approximately $35 million in 2018, and for this year is estimated at $40 million [50]. The long-term forecast shows that the dating market will continue to grow as Canada's revenue for the industry should be nearly $54 million by 2023 [51]. The most popular three dating apps in Canada in 2019 are: Tinder, OKCupid and Bumble. And the most popular dating sites are: eHarmony, Match and EliteSingles [52].

Case Study: Facebook Dating

Facebook decided to expand its portfolio and announced a new dating feature called Dating within the main Facebook application in May 2018 [53]. However, this feature was not offered to all users since its launching. Firstly, the company started testing it in Colombia to see if the service would succeed [54]. The reason for choosing Colombia is that it is open to online dating while it is easy to evaluate data of approximately 30 million active users per month [55]. During the first year, the feature was offered to users in other 19 countries including Canada and the US [56]. The competitive advantage is that Facebook has 2.45 billion active users per month [57]. It can target its app to a large scale of users, unlike other dating sites and apps (compared to Facebook, Tinder has only 57 million users worldwide) [58].

Image 2. "Facebook Dating" is officially launching in the U.S., by Facebook.

How Facebook Dating Works

Dating feature is currently only available for mobile devices. Individuals older than 18 years have to create a separate profile from the main Facebook one [59]. Only the name and age will be taken from the main profile of the user [60]. It is possible to upload up to nine photos and also answer questions that are pre-given by Facebook to introduce yourself more in detail [61]. Dating will offer potential matches mainly based on preferences and activities on Facebook [62]. For example, it may happen that someone has a match who is in the same Facebook group or has visited the same event. At the same time, the app will only match friends of friends or users who are not in any friends list at all with particular users. If there is a situation where someone would be interested in a person from his Facebook/Instagram friend list, there is an option called Secret Crush [63]. Users can add up to 9 people they are interested in to this secret list. If one user is interested in a friend from Facebook/Instagram list and that friend also adds him/her to the secret crush list, the application will notify them that it is a match [64]. In general, there does not exist sweeping right or left mechanism in the Dating app. Users need to show interest by giving a like on profiles, or by commenting on photos or user’s responses on Facebook answers [65]. However, if the user does not return interest, it is possible to select an option “Not Interested”. If they later change their minds, there is a "Second look" function [66]. To make the whole application more attractive, it is possible to add Instagram content such as Insta Stories or photos to Dating profile [67]. Security is also important to Facebook. Users cannot send photos, links, or payments to messages to prevent various scams [68].

Online Dating vs. Traditional Dating

Relative to traditional dating, online dating opens up a whole new world of possibilities. In this context, traditional dating could be thought of as the time before online dating existed, where meeting your potential match would need to be in person through a mutual friend or co-worker. With any technology there are always trade-offs. This section will aim to analyze the pros and cons of online dating versus traditional dating.


Users are able to meet many more potential dates in a short period of time. With the advent of apps such as Tinder, a simple swipe can filter through many partners, mitigating time wasted looking for a match. In traditional dating, it is rare to meet more than one new match at a time. Another benefit is that many apps can utilize additional personality testing not possible by traditional dating. While many individuals feel like they know their specific type, a personality test such as the Meyers-Briggs type indicator may provide useful insight. Thirdly, online saves significant time, money, and energy when communicating with a potential match before meeting them. The power of email, instant messaging, and text allows users to filter their potential matches before committing to meeting them online. Lastly, long-distance dating is easier than ever by allowing you to online date with a match across the world. With the power of the internet, users are not bound to their geographical location and can find love literally anywhere in the world. This method is especially for individuals living in a remote or low-populated area.


With traditional dating, it is much harder to lie about yourself physically compared to the internet. With millions of photos online, powerful tools like Photoshop, and image filters, users can easily alter or manipulate their appearance to become more attractive. This is especially dangerous in “romance scams” which will be examined in a later section. Secondly, according to Professor Mehrabian, 93% of communication is non-verbal [69]. This means that with online dating, users miss key communication channels. Purely over text or voice chat, users cannot gauge eye contact, body language, distance, touch, and emotions. This is an underrated fact that online daters tend to overlook when finding their match. Lastly, online dating does not allow users to learn, practice, and develop their social skills. Often times, individuals are much different behind a computer screen than if they were to be with someone in person. Online dating lowers the risk and level of embarrassment from failure.

Case Study: Romance Scams

Image 3. Romance Scams, by Safe in WarwickShire.

Romance Scams are con-artists attempting to gain money, gifts, or personal details such as email, passport, social security number, etc. via online dating. Typically scammers will create a fake profile online including fake pictures, names, age, occupation, location, etc. They may also try to impersonate real people by stealing their identity. This phenomenon is also known as “catfishing” [70]. Romance scam techniques vary, but typically the scammers will try to develop a relationship with the victim quickly in an attempt to gain their trust and affection. They may try to change the communication channel off the dating app to something more private such as text or email. When the scammers have successfully gained the victims trust, they will attempt to elicit money often in the form of wire transfer, gift cards, or money order. They will deceive victims by portraying a real emergency situation that requires urgent funding. The most common scam scenarios are:

  • “The scammer says their boss has paid them in postal money orders, and asks the victim to cash the forged money orders and then wire money to the scammer. The bank eventually reverts the money order cash but not the wire transfer.
  • The scammer says they need the victim to send money to pay for a passport.
  • The scammer says they require money for flights to the victim's country because they are being held back in their home country by a family member or spouse. In all cases the scammer never comes, or says that they are being held against their will by immigration authorities who are demanding bribes.
  • The scammer says they need the money to pay their phone bills in order to continue communicating with the victim.
  • The scammer says they need the money for their own or their parents' urgent medical treatment.
  • The scammer says they need the money to complete their education before they can visit the victim.

After receiving funds, the scammers will either continue to elicit money or move onto their next target. The victims are left disappointment, betrayal, and missing funds. The Canadian Bankers Association estimated that in 2018, Canadians lost more than $22.5 million dollars from romance scams” [71][72].

Niche Apps

While dating apps like Tinder, Coffee meets Bagel, and Grindr are globally recognized services, there are many other niche apps that focus in on a specific category or subcategory of people. As the online dating market continues to grow, individuals can be sure to find a unique dating service to match their every need. The following are three of those niche dating applications.

Hater App

Founded in 2016, this service is counterintuitive to what most people expect from a dating service. While the majority of apps try to match users based on things they like, Hater aims to pair up daters based on a shared mutual hatred. Users create a profile and instead of swiping left or right on potential matches, they allow users to swipe on controversial topics to indicate their feelings on them. Topics widely vary and can even include “pineapples on pizza”, “Donald Trump”, “country music”, “man-buns”, etc. Founded by Brendan Alper, a former finance associate for global investment banking company Goldman Sachs, Hater initially started out as a joke, but quickly gained traction through its unique concept [73]. While the app is yet to become mainstream, it has seen some success even being featured on ABC’s “Shark Tank”.


As the name suggests, this app is “tinder for dogs” allowing dogs and owners to connect with their furry counter-parts. This app is not technically a dating service, but can be used as ones. Profiles can be created specifically for your dog allowing owners to upload pictures, specify breed, age, and color. Owners who match their dogs can set up doggy play dates and meet new owners around the area. In addition to the app, hosts many valuable resources for dog owners including nutrition, behaviour/training guides, breed guides, health care, and even local shelters. Tindog aims to “motivate, empower, and help all pet owners and their pets to live a healthier, more fulfilling life in all environments” [74].

Badoo - Lookalikes

While Badoo itself is not a niche dating app, the “lookalikes” feature within the service is totally unique and interesting. Founded in 2006 by Russian entrepreneur Andrey Andreev, Badoo quickly gained popularity. In 2016 it was the most downloaded dating app in 21 countries [75]. On their website, Badoo claims to have 350 million messages sent per day, 455 million registered users, 60 million active users, and 300 thousand daily sign ups [76]. The “Lookalikes” feature allows users to find potential matches that look like their ideal candidate. Often the case is individuals will search up their celebrity crush in hopes to find users with similar physical features. For example, one could look up “Selena Gomez” try to find “Lookalikes” and converse with them.

Image 4. Hater App, by Make Use of.
Image 6. Badoo - Lookalikes, by Online Dating Sound Barrier.
Image 5. TinDog, by Huffington Post.

Future of Dating

Image 7. DNA-Based Dating app Pheramor, by Pheramor.

DNA-Based Dating

For $20, houston-based dating app “Pheramor” will try to connect users based on biology, genetic chemistry, and preferences. Users can swab the inside of their cheeks and send the DNA back for Pheramor to analyze the “11 attraction genes” [77]. In addition to DNA testing, users can also submit their social media profiles for computer algorithms to analyze. They would look at things such as posts, posts you’ve liked, locations check-in, followers, and following. Combining both the DNA and social media analysis, Pheramor will give matched couples a compatibility score out of 100 to indicate how successful they feel the pair would match.

Virtual Reality

It is believed that all human senses will be digitally simulated at once in the future because of very fast data sharing. Therefore it will be possible to create a full-sensory virtual reality. People will be able to go to date while staying in the comfort of their own home. For example, it may be possible to hold hands with someone even if your dating partner is in another state or continent [78].


Allan Duong Sara Filipkova Chailim Shin
Beedie School of Business
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, BC, Canada
Beedie School of Business
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, BC, Canada
Beedie School of Business
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, BC, Canada


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