The Business Of Space

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This work covers the topic of Business of Space, which includes but is not limited to the history and current state of the space industry, Private corporations in the industry, possible ways to make profits in the Space industry, and predictions and speculations on the future of the industry, humankind, and other industries related to space exploration and research.



Space has always been a very lucrative venture for mankind because of its magnitude and mysterious nature. With the promise of holding answers to many questions like the formation and evolution of earth itself, extra-terrestrial life forms, and prospects for other habitable planets for humans, space research has had significant time, human, and capital investment by government agencies in the last 70 years. The most prominent and accomplished countries in terms of space research and exploration are currently Russia, USA, China, India, and Japan. Over the past 10 years however there has been a huge change in the nature of the race to space, and private companies like SpaceX, Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic are now beating government agencies in terms of technological capabilities to further the prospects of deep space travel, exploration, and even human space habitats. What motivates these companies to join this high-risk venture that has no guaranteed rewards? Let's find out.

Space History

A brief and non-comprehensive timeline of space exploration [1] from 1940 to 2015-


WAC corporal [2]: became the first manmade object to reach the edge of space


Laika [3] : first animal in orbit, sent by Russia in the sputnik 2


Yuri Gagarin [4] : First manned flight to space


Neil Armstrong [5] : First human on the moon along with Buzz Aldrin


Voyager 1 [6] : First photograph of entire solar system


433 Eros [7] : First landing on an asteroid, done by spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker


Hayabusa [8] : First touch and go manoeuvre on an asteroid


Curiosity Rover [9] : Rover lands on Mars and is deployed


SpaceX [10] : Becomes first private company to have a rocket dock with the ISS


Rosetta [11] : First soft landing on an asteroid


Lettuce [12] : First crop to be grown and eaten in space.

Current space industry and private companies

Current space industry and private companies

Since 2015, there has been one private rocket launch after the other, including SpaceX’s falcon and falcon heavies, Blue origin prototypes, or Virgin galactic Test flights. An increasing number of private companies have been emerging in the space industry, and there's two main reasons behind this:

Profit: Discussed further in section 4 space has changed from the endless black hole of capital it used to be and is now emerging as an industry where profit is not just possible but probable. Private companies are drawn to it due to its potential to make them a lot of profits while giving them a lot of publicity.

Philanthropy: With the first private companies in the space industry having founders justifying nobler causes for their goals, philanthropy is another big reason why a lot of the private companies in the space race today became a part of this industry.

Amongst all the media coverage private firms are getting, government agencies like NASA [13] , Roscosmos [14] , JAXA [15] and ISRO [16] have taken a backseat and it is not unusual to think that private agencies may soon take leadership of the space industry, but government agencies (GA) are still active and advancing space research and exploration at a commendable pace. Some significant Private and GA developments recently (past 4 years) include:

SpaceX and NASA: SpaceX Dragon became the first private spacecraft to the International Space Station [17] .

Virgin Galactic test flights and spaceport, bookings: Virgin galactic had a successful test flight following having sold all pre bookings for its suborbital flights till 2021 [18] , raising 80 million in revenue. Furthermore, the company officially moved operations to spaceport America- its final base of operations and lunches [19] .

JAXA Hayabusa 2: The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Hayabusa 2 [20] spacecraft reached asteroid Ryugu and collected the first sub-surface samples from an asteroid [21] .

ISRO Chandrayaan 2: The Indian Space Research Organisation had a successful launch of its Chandrayaan 2 [22] craft, which is aimed at the far side of the moon. A feat no other spacecraft has accomplished yet.

NASA ISS tourism, private dock: NASA announced it would officially open up the ISS for tourist stays of up to 30 days [23] provided they cover all the cost of their trip, amenities, and more while at the ISS.


Profit is a HUGE motivator for private companies, and as this article mentions repeatedly, Space travel and exploration is emerging as a profitable industry. With the history of Space exploration being as investment intensive as is it without any capital rewards, it's hard to imagine many capital gains in this industry. Irregardless of the past, here's just a few of the ways profits could be made in space:

The Space Race

The Space Race

The current race [24] between private corporations to become the first to get to the Moon or Mars reliably and safely is the most publicised, heavily invested into, and the biggest part of the Space industry currently- and for good reason.

The first company to be successful in this will have the chance to get billions of dollars’ worth of government contracts, similar to how SpaceX has gotten contracts to launch NASA and government satellites aboard its rockets in the recent past [25] . The difference between those past contracts and potential future contracts is one thing- the number of launches and continuity. The winner of the Space Race will have the opportunity to monopolise private launches by long term contracts with other space agencies. These contracts would not only reduce the prospects of competing firms taking away their launches but also give the winner a lot of capital that can be invested into further developing their technology to make their launches cheaper, safer, and more reliable.

The three major players in the space race right now are SpaceX [26] , Blue Origin [27] , and Virgin Galactic [28] .

Suborbital Flights

Taking an aircraft to an altitude of around 100km can reduce the wind resistance it faces significantly, and allow it to travel at speeds of up to 1500km/hr. This altitude means that the aircraft is in space and has crossed the earth's atmosphere [29] , making for a very nice view. What’s even more interesting is that at that altitude, zero gravity comes into effect which allows passengers to experience weightlessness.

Space has a lot of appeal for humans, and one of those is weightlessness. Which is precisely why suborbital flights are such a well-received idea, with companies offering freefalling flight experiences to allow users to feel weightless being present and popular in the past decade. Private companies are underway to make real zero gravity experiences possible for commercial travellers, one good example of this is Virgin Galactic's suborbital flights being all booked out till 2021 generating 80 million US$ in revenue as discussed in section 3.

Space tourism

Going to space had been a privilege reserved for only a small number of highly trained and qualified astronauts for a long time. Then Space Adventures [30] started, being the first private firm commercial travellers the chance to go to space. Till date Space Adventures has had multiple private passengers visit the ISS aboard Russian rockets, but it's a long, hard, and testing process requiring a lot of NASA permits and training for the passengers.

Recently however, with NASA opening up the ISS to tourists, the process has gotten significantly easier and faster. In the coming years, all one would need to visit and stay on the ISS is 35,000 US$ per night of stay, non-inclusive of transportation costs to and from the ISS. The price is still steep, considering the estimated 50 million US$ cost of transportation to and from the ISS quoted by SpaceX [31] (currently the only private company allowed to dock with the ISS), but as space travel technology becomes more efficient, this cost is expected to decline sharply along with rising profit margins.


With human space colonies becoming not only possible but probable over the last decade, there's a lot of opportunity for industries to cater to those colonies and provide them with things like energy, transportation, and shelter [32]. With this, the prospect for profit is clear, these industries could make profits in space if they are able to translate their service from earth to the respective colony body. Here's some of the industries that could be profitable in space by catering to basic needs of space residents:



With a value of over 8.5 Trillion US$ and growing rapidly, energy is earth's largest industry. Wherever humans go, we need energy, and so more humans in space means more energy required in space. Currently the primary sources for energy in space is solar power and chemical energy. Solar power industries would have a high upfront cost and very low recurring maintenance costs, along with zero production discharge and easy setup, which makes solar energy the most likely energy source for space colonies.



Humans in space will need transportation, not just to and from space but between and within colonies and to transport essential supplies to sustain and grow space colonies. Space travel is already a huge industry, and is expected to grow significantly as colonies start getting established.


With space tourism and space life, humans in space will need shelter, recreation, and entertainment. Hospitality being one of the fastest growing industries in the world, it’s also expected to have a big presence in space.


The second largest industry on earth, construction would be needed for human bases in space. Albeit this industry is expected to look very different compared to earth's construction processes, since it’s expected to rely heavily on 3d printing due to the flexibility, safety, and low labour required for 3d printed shelters.



Celestis [33] is a company dealing with scattering cremated remains of humans in space for a price. With a price tag of $5000 [34] per gram of cremated remains (for the 125 peoples’ remains sent abroad a SpaceX rocket), Celestis is an amazing example of possible profit making industries in space that are hard to predict due to the endless possibilities space presents.

Asteroid Mining

Asteroid Mining.

Asteroid mining is not only feasible, but lucrative and has unprecedented potential for profits[35], according to a Goldman sachs report [36]. With many companies already established to mine asteroids as soon as possible, this industry is one with a lot of possibilities and speculations. Asteroid mining could solve the issue of resource scarcity for many metals on earth like iron, nickel, copper, silver, gold, platinum, and titanium but there’s a lot of uncertainty regarding the economic impact of heavily increased supply of these metals if the mining is successful and their price affect. Nonetheless, many influential people have stepped up already to invest in companies that hope to engage in asteroid mining, some of which include the following:

Eric C. Anderson - Planetary Resources Inc. [37].
Peter Diamandis - Planetary Resources Inc.
Barney Pell - Moon Express [38]
Naveen Jain - Moon Express.
Robert D. Richards - Moon Express.
Eric Ward - Odyne Space [39]
Josh Izenberg - Offworld [40]
Joel Sercel - Trans Astranautica Corporation [41]
Patrick van Put - Bradford Space [42]
Kevin DuPriest - Planetoid Mines [43]
G. Scott Moore - Eurosun Mining [44]
Christopher Tylor - NEO Resource Atlas

Future in Space

Life in Space

Life in Space

Life of an Astronaut

Isolated from family and friends, exposed to radiation that could increase your lifetime risk for cancer, a diet high in freeze-dried food and daily exercise to keep your muscles and bones from deteriorating. This is what astronauts go through during their journey.

Human Body in Space

Gravity Fields - During a journey to Mars, there are 3 different gravity fields that human body will experience. First, it will be weightless during the whole journey. Then, on Mars, one will experience 1/3rd of the Earth’s gravity. Finally, after returning home, one will have to readapt to the Earth's gravity. It is way more difficult than it sounds to transition from one gravity field to another. It affects one’s head-eye and hand-eye coordination, it also affects balance and humans are likely to experience motion sickness.[45]

Solution: By observing and comparing the changes a human body goes through in weightless environment to that of the Earth’s gravity, protection against these changes for a Mars mission can be developed.[46]

Hostile/closed environments: NASA has found that the ecosystem inside the spacecraft plays a major role in astronauts' life. Microbes are able to alter their characteristics in different environments such as space, and it is easier for microorganisms to travel more easily in confined environments including those microorganisms that naturally live on the human body. Further, there is an increase in the stress hormone levels and the immune system is altered as well, which could lead to an increased vulnerability to various diseases and illnesses.

Solution: Using different technologies to observe and control the quality of air inside such confined environments like the space station, NASA can ensure the atmosphere is safe to breathe in and is not contaminated with harmful gases such as formaldehyde, ammonia, and carbon monoxide that allows the growth and travel of various microbes. Astronauts’ urine and blood samples are also tested to make sure that the stress of space flight doesn't cause infectious illnesses.

Radiation: Above the Earth's protective shielding, the human body will be exposed to over ten times the radiation than what’s naturally occurring on Earth. Such high level of radiation can increase one's risk of cancer and can harm the central nervous system in the human body. It can also reduce motor functions and cause behavioral changes.

Solution: NASA is testing different methods to analyze the affects of radiation on humans while living in space. It is also trying to set biological countermeasures to optimize shielding which could help protect us on a journey to Mars.

Self-Sustaining space bases

Since the 1950’s, the US and several other countries have sustained research facilities in harsh remote climes of Antarctica. The latest version of these research laboratories are slick, mobile, and self-contained. NASA and ESA use them as role models for trips to other planets. Designers for space hotels and other stations should take note how these places are run, and manage their resources. Source:

Stephen Hawking said that Earth is becoming unsustainable given the rising needs of humans and soon we will need to find another place to live. As NASA and private companies race to send humans to Mars and beyond, the need for bases providing sustainable life for long periods in space becomes apparent. Humans have been traveling to space for more than 50 years, However, all the stays haven't been really long given the unfriendly long term environment of outer space for humans. The human body is used to Earth's 1 G gravity environment. After spending a significant amount of time in zero gravity, Astronauts' different bodily systems are affected, including bone density loss, impaired vision, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning and immune system changes. The only way to sustain life in space for an extended period of time is to provide similar to that of the Earth's.[47]

Biosphere 2 is an Earth system science research facility located in Oracle, Arizona. It was originally constructed to test the feasibility of closed ecological systems in outer space that would support and maintain human life. It was modeled to analyze how various life systems interact with each other in a closed structure with different areas based on various biological biomes. It also included an agricultural area and a work space to study these interactions. It was a 2-year experiment with a crew of 8 members. It was seen as a precursor to explore the use of closed biospheres in space colonization.[48]

Job Opportunities

Space pilots: Space tourism is on the rise and there will be an increasing demand for for shuttle-steering space pilots and ancillary professions such as space traffic control officials and space flight attendants.

Space Lawyers: These professionals will deal with regulations regarding individual rights and areas such as rights regarding mining asteroids which might be a bit broad and vague today but can be a matter of tomorrow’s multi-billion-dollar lawsuits.

SACE: These architects will not merely recreate the structures that are found on Earth on different planets, they will have to gain special knowledge regarding various harsh environments found in space. This will allow them to create special structures capable of withstanding everything from extreme radiation to sub-zero temperatures.

Space Medic: These professional will study the biological, physiological and psychological effects on the human body during a space journey. A number of universities are already offering courses or modules in fields like space physiology and health.

Asteroid Miner: Given the depleting resources on Earth and abundance of these resources on approximately 9,000 known asteroids currently traveling in orbit close to the Earth, methods will be developed to mine them. This will lead to an increasing demand for personnel skilled in this area. These asteroids could contain an abundance of fresh resources, ranging from water to platinum.

Space Engineer: Space engineers already have a significant presence in 2019. An aerospace engineer who can build satellites, rockets, and space shuttles is already a sought-after occupation and is expected to grow in the near future[49]

Second Generation Space Residents

Reproduction is an area that most fail to mention while talking about space and setting up a permanent base on another world. NASA is actively funding research into space sex biology. The effects of gravity and radiation on reproduction are, so far, the major issues scientists are trying to address.

A number of experiments have been conducted on plants and rats to consider reproduction functions without gravity.

When experimenting with plants, it was noticed that the plants failed to germinate.

There were experiments conducted with rats too and when they returned, there was evidence that they had mated in space but none of the females ever delivered. Later, NASA sent pregnant rats into orbit. Back on Earth, the process was more or less normal but the rat pups exposed to microgravity developed abnormal vestibular systems or the inner ear machinery associated in sensing movement, direction and orientation.[50]

However, the data from a recent study suggested that numerous aspects of pregnancy, birth and early mammalian development can proceed under altered gravity conditions.[51]

Technologies Applied in Space

3D Printing

3D printing, also known as Additive Manufacturing, builds a three-dimensional object by joining or solidifying materials, usually layer by layer. As opposed to traditional manufacturing where pieces are cut from larger blocks of material, 3D printing only produces relevant parts as needed and reduces material and energy waste.[52]. This is especially meaningful to space stations and future space colonies where artificial materials are extremely scarce, while delivery of supplies to these locations are expensive and time-costly.

First Item

The ratchet wrench was designed by Noah Paul-Gin, an engineer at Made In Space Inc., a northern California company that NASA contracted to design, build and operate the printer. Paul-Gin created a 3-D model of the ratchet and made several wrenches, such as the one shown here on an identical printer. Credits: Made in Space

The first commercial item 3D printed in the International Space Station (ISS) was a ratchet wrench by an 3D printer named Additive Manufacturing Facility (AMF), a product of Made in Space. This came out as a bilateral decision by NASA and the astronauts that they would test the time to 3D print something most required in the ISS. The entire process took 2 days, including designing the wrench, transmitting and uploading the electronic file to the International Space Station, and printing it out.[53].


European Space Agency is experimenting with 3D printing satellites in a special thermoplastic called PEEK. CubeSats are satellites about 10 cm in size, and can be connected with other CubeSats to create a satellite system. Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), is the new and strong material that these CubeSats are printed in. Electrically conductive lines can be 3D printed into the body itself, thus saving the process of wiring up these CubeSats. Additionally, PEEK is biocompatible, which means the material can also be used in printing all kinds of personal items for the astronauts, including toothbrushes. These 3D printed items are also recyclable, which fulfils the core requirement of sustainability in space.[54]

3D-printing is used to not only produce in space handy tools for the astronauts, but to manufacture essential parts of space stations and rockets as well.

Mars Habitat

Since it is not feasible to deliver all the material for building a Mars habitat from earth, NASA scientists are investigating 3D printing with Regolith. Regolith is similar to sand — little bits of crushed rock created by asteroid impacts. However, this rough material tends to clog up machinery operations and the research for its application is still in progress.[55]

In early 2015, NASA outlined a conceptual plan for three stage 3D-printed Mars habitat design and construction award program. On May 10 2019, Team AI SpaceFactory won first place in the final phase of this program with Marsha, a tall, thin proposed habitat for the surface of Mars designed to be built autonomously. The team now plans to adapt Marsha's design for an eco-friendly Earth habitat called Tera.[56] This illustrates that frontier science, besides realizing a future vision, can directly benefit the present daily life.


Relativity Space, a California-based start-up, can 3D print an entire rocket engine in 60 days. The company claims that its technology significantly reduces the time it takes to manufacture a vehicle for space travel and the cost associated with that manufacturing. The company also aims to 3D print an entire rocket with the world’s largest 3D printer. To achieve this, Relativity developed Stargate, a hybrid directed energy deposition system that relied on three industrial robotic arms that work together using collaborative robot path planning software written by the company. Two arms feature high-powered lasers, also developed in-house, that can work on the same part, while a third arm utilizes a mill that can perform the necessary machining work to add details and finish the part.[57]

Space-based Solar Power

Conceptual image of a space-based solar power farm. Credits: JAXA

A space-based solar power station has significant advantages over an earth-based solar collector: it avoids the influence of a diffusing atmosphere and is less impacted by the rotation of earth, thus providing the benefit of a higher collection rate and a longer or possibly uninterrupted collection period.[58]

The idea of collecting solar power in space and transmitting it to earth and other planets was first described by science fiction author Isaac Asimov in 1941 in his short story Reason. In 1968, American aerospace engineer Peter Glaser published the first technical article on the concept – Power from The Sun: Its Future in the journal Science. Despite its technical feasibility, space-based solar power (SBSP) was deemed economically unrealistic and ultimately abandoned in the late 1990s. [59] However, as private sector companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin drastically reduce the cost of manufacturing and launching rocket, the concept of SBSP regained attention in the space industry.[60]

International Space Station Solar Arrays

The ISS is entirely powered by solar power through its 8 solar arrays. These solar arrays contain 262,400 solar cells and cover an area of about 27,000 square feet (2,500 square meters) - more than half the area of a football field. They can generate 84 to 120 kilowatts of electricity, 60% of which is used to charge the station’s batteries when the ISS is in sunlight. The batteries will power the station when some of the solar arrays are in the shadow of Earth or the shadow of part of the station.[61] This enables energy sustainability and self-sufficiency of the ISS.

In 2009, NASA delivered a US$300 million new set of solar wing panels to the ISS. The cost per pound of payload at the time was $4729.[62] In 2016, this cost was reduced to $1270 per pound by Falcon 9 of SpaceX.[63] As technology advancement and market competition continues to drive down the cost, it is foreseeable that SBSP and other technologies that can be run more efficiently in space will gain more business prospects.

LightSail and Solar Sailing

LightSail 2 During Sail Deployment Sequence (Camera 2) Credits: Planetary Society

Solar sailing involves capturing the momentum of light from the sun and using that momentum to push the spacecraft forward. [64] This revolutionary way of movement is made possible by the lack of resistance in space. LightSail is a crowdfunded project to test and demonstrate controlled solar sailing within low Earth orbit using a CubeSat, a mini Satellite, from The Planetary Society. LightSail 2, launched in June 25 2019, is the first spacecraft in Earth orbit propelled solely by sunlight. The entire project cost US$7 million over 10 years, including $1.24 million raised from a Kickstarter campaign in 2015.[65]

The LightSail project demonstrates the potential of crowdfunding contribution to not only mature technologies that can be converted to promising returns, but also the frontier of applied science where research and studies are still in progress. The elimination of unnecessary intermediates and bureaucracy adds to the efficiency and transparency of this project. It sheds light on a more direct collective effort in conducting future scientific research, the duties of which will no longer rest solely on the shoulders of government, but also on companies from private sectors and average citizens from around the world.

Quantum Encryption Satellite

The Micius satellite transfers quantum keys across vast distances. Credits: Physical Review Letters

Quantum Encryption exploits quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks. As opposed to the traditional encryption method where data is encoded into binary digits, called bits, quantum encryption encodes data in the form of quantum bits, or qubits. While bits are in a definitive state of either 0 or 1, qubits are in a superposition of both 0 and 1 at the same time - a quantum phenomenon called quantum superposition. Undoubtedly, the data and communication safety provided by quantum encryption is evolutionary, as it is impossible to copy data encoded in a quantum state.[66] Current quantum encryption technology relies on ground fiber-optic cables and is, at this point, limited to a 200 kilometre distance. A quantum encryption satellite in space can overcome this distance limit.

Quantum Experiments at Space Scale

Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) is an international research project in the field of quantum physics. The satellite, nicknamed Micius or Mozi after the ancient Chinese philosopher and scientist, is operated by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, as well as ground stations in China. The University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences are running the satellite's European receiving stations. It is a proof-of-concept mission designed to facilitate quantum optics experiments over long distances to allow the development of quantum encryption and quantum teleportation technology. QUESS has been successful in its objectives. Further Micius satellites will follow, allowing a European–Asian quantum-encrypted network by 2020, and a global network by 2030.[67]


With the exceptional processing and encryption power of quantum computers, the current computing and encryption system will be completely replaced very soon. In fact, the Canadian government estimated that the current encryption methods will be rendered obsolete within the next 10 to 20 years.[68] As quantum computers will be millions of times faster than any conventional computer, they will be able to decipher passwords, personal identification numbers and other current safeguards quickly, putting confidential and personal information at risk.[69] Essentially, quantum technology possesses the quality of both the most powerful weapon and most reliable shield in the digital world.

Just like when the world first embraced the internet, society once again is facing a complete change in the way everyone communicates and does business. The vast performance difference between quantum encryption and conventional encryption creates an ethically and perhaps legally grey area that is similar to an arbitrage in finance. There will be inevitably temporary conflicts and even chaos created by groups and individuals who try to exploit this situation, when the worldwide adaption and transition to this new technology takes place in the future. It is extremely crucial that governments of all countries establish a rigorous law and regulation system for this new territory beforehand. Education of related knowledge and ethics also needs to be in place soon.


CRISPR-Cas9 is a method of genome editing that exploits a natural DNA-snipping enzyme in bacteria, called Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) to target and edit particular genes. Credits: CambridgeCore

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a family of DNA sequences found within the genomes of prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and archaea. These sequences play a key role in the antiviral defence system of prokaryotes and have been used to help. The technology had been used to functionally inactivate genes in human cell lines and cells, to study Candida albicans, to modify yeasts used to make biofuels and to genetically modify crop strains.[70] To put in simple terms, it possesses the power to mutate microorganisms including human genes.

In May 2019, for the first time, astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have used CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the DNA of brewer's yeast. The purpose of this experiment is to understand how DNA repair mechanisms function in space, as cosmic radiation damages human DNA and has a negative impact on astronauts’ health.[71] Furthermore, when the future Mars colonization takes place, migrants will likely face assorted health threats that are not present on earth, and CRISPR will be expected to help them through this transition to a new and possibly dangerous environment.[72]


The application of CRISPR brings human beings back to the basic life question - “Who am I?”, as the technology essentially modifies human genes, the basic informative component that composes human bodies and are passed along generations through heredity. Until now, the majority of humans are still defining themselves by the external manifestations of their genes, namely colour, shape and in grander terms, blood and races. As the technology is applied to human bodies in future, however, this conventional way of self-recognition will be swayed at its foundation. Humans will not only experience a migration physically and geographically, but mentally and spiritually as well. During this process, many people will be inevitably lost. The same old philosophical question will resonate in everyone’s minds.

It will also be, however, an opportunity for humans to set aside their prejudices and rethink themselves as a whole. With all the dramatic changes brought by new technologies like quantum computing and genome editing, humans will have to adapt by not only changing the structure of hardware in the physical world, but also changing the structure of ones’ spiritual world. This will be an unprecedented window in human history for governments, private businesses and individuals to work together towards a collective destination.


Lokesh Gupta Sizhan Xu Vikram Chandhok


  70. Barrangou R (2015). "The roles of CRISPR-Cas systems in adaptive immunity and beyond". Current Opinion in Immunology. 32: 36–41. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2014.12.008. PMID 25574773.
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