Twitter

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Twitter

Twitter is an online social networkingand microblogging service that enables users to send and read short 140-character text messages, called "tweets". Registered users can read and post tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through the website interface, SMS, or mobile device app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco and has offices in New York City, Boston, Austin and Detroit [1] .

Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Evan Williams, Biz Stone and Noah Glass and by July 2006 the site was launched. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with 500 million registered users in 2012, who posted 340 million tweets per day [2] .


Contents

Social Media

It is fascinating how social media nowadays is practically at the center of everyone's social life. The vast number of social media options is so vast that even social media experts find it confusing and overwhelming. People find themselves asking how various social networking sites differ from one another. What should I be using social site 'A' for if I am using social site 'B'? Which one is better? The answers are not really that cut-and-dry because all social networking sites and platforms have different purposes.

Facebook vs. Twitter

Facebook vs. Twitter

Facebook is used for a variety of purposes. Its main functions are to connect or reconnect people who already know each other offline. Users register for an account and maintain a personal profile where they post messages on a "Wall". Users can also upload and share with their network photos, videos, links, articles, and write private messages through a instant messaging feature Messenger. In additions, Facebook functions as a gaming platform that allows users to game and interact online with their friends. Very well known games are Tetris, Candy Crush Saga, Farmville, and Texas HoldEm Poker.

Twitter is mainly used to communicate with other people with similar interests, regardless of whether the users know each other offline or not. Similar to Facebook, users can upload photos, share links, and send private messages to the people they follow. The following are some of the differences between these two social networking platforms.

Less Effort

Twitter allows people to follow other people they desire to, whether they know each other offline or not. Users typically follow events, celebrities, topics, trends that is relevant and interesting to them. On the other hand, Facebook users connect or reconnect with people they care about to stay connected with. The relationships formed in Facebook requires more effort from both parties, is more personal and attached.

Timely Matter vs. Timelessness

The content on Facebook are timeless. In other words, people can have access to their friends profile and look at photos shared years ago simply because the content is available. The content does not necessarily have to be about trends or events currently taking place in the globe. On the other hand, Twitter is about the here and now; relevant and constantly changing topics and trends and updated events [3] . If users wished to stay informed, then Twitter is the place to go. For content that is less focused of time and timing but more in depth, Facebook is a great medium.

Ease of Use

Trending topics and hashtag on Twitter changes very quickly throughout the day. All the latest topics and trends can be found on Twitter. Conversational threads on Facebook may be easier to follow, but the trending topics are best discussed and spread around in the 140-character Tweets.

Directing Traffic

Twitter is better at fresh news portals and at directing traffic. Individuals and companies typically announce hot trends, promotions, or current news on Twitter and use it to push followers to other websites. Facebook expands the breadth of the conversation but it can soon be littered with opinions and comments that are not relevant to the topic.

There are plenty of differences between Facebook and Twitter, but the bottom line is that Facebook is considered more of a social relationship builder whereas Twitter keeps people updated about topics, trends, and news that are relevant to them. It is less about social relationship but about staying informed. In an era ruled by social media, people are registered to more than one social networking site. In light of this and considering that all social networking sites have different purposes, individuals and businesses can benefit from using different social media tools to connect with and engage the audience they want to pursue.

LinkedIn vs. Twitter

LinkedIn

LinkedIn is a business-oriented social networking service used mainly for professional networking, founded in December 2002 and launched on May 2003. LinkedIn users create a personal profile detailing their experiences and skills in a certain industry for other users to read. Usually, users connect with other professionals who are from the same industry or are closely related to it.

The differences between these two social networking platforms are more obvious. LinkedIn is restrictive and users carry themselves in a very formal and professional manner. They have to know the person to connect with, be a member of the same group or ask someone from the group for an introduction. On the other hand, Twitter users can follow anyone they want. Twitter is informal and more personal, it allows users to show other users who they really are, their interests, personality, and personal lifestyle if desired.


Google+ vs. Twitter

Google+

Google+ is a social networking and identity service that is owned and operated by Google Inc. It is considered a "social layer" that enhances many of its online properties, and that it is not simply a social networking website, but also an authorship tool that associates web-content directly with its owner or author [4].


Google+ has achieved a 1.15 billion user base, but only 35% are active monthly users; however, still surpassing Twitter 232 million monthly active users (as of November 2013) and placing it as the No. 2 social networking after Facebook [5] . In light of the fact that Twitter used rank second, many believes Google+ is a threat to blue bird, other are not that convinced.

Compared to Facebook. Google+ give users a better control. Between the dilution of organic search, the suppression of posts, Facebook is reducing even further businesses' ability to get to he front of their audience. Some companies like Ford are starting to use Google+ and find that the platform gathers more people than any other social networking site. When people want to look at a product or service, they search for it. Google is Google and Google is a search engine. Search is where people go to buy and through buying companies earn money, which the the reinvest in Google services.

Google+ is a well-rounded social networking site, it provides high quality content and engage and inspire others through your words and actions. It is said that Google+ is Facebook, Twitter Messenger, interest forums, e-mail, and Skype combined but better on almost all fronts [6] .

Hashtag

Use #hashtags to keep track of current trends.

Twitter's popularity and the viral nature of information dissemination lead to trending topics that become extremely popular in a very short time. It demonstrates how fast the information is spreading on the Internet. People tend to search for tweets that have a common topic. Thus it becomes a practical application to marketing and public relations. For instance, how can an advertising or public relations firm assess how successful their marketing campaigns are going to be? Now we have hashtags to do that for us.

When you see something in a tweet that has a number sign (#) prefix, that's a hashtag. In Twitter, people usually use hashtags to categorize tweets by keyword. They is a box in the front page called "Trends" which shows the current most popular topics. By clicking any of the hyperlinked trending topics, you will get all the tweets that are hashtagged with this particular keyword. For example, if you click #TransformersReview, the search results will be all the tweets that have been hashtagged with #TransformerReview.

#TransformerReview

There is a lot more social medias that are also using hashtags, such as Instagram. However, Twitter is the very first one who started using hashtags in tweet which can be traced back to the middle of 2009. In Jan 2011, Instagram added hashtags as well to help users to discover both photographs and enable them to find each other easier. In the same year, Google + also implemented hashtag features. Two years later, Facebook also announced on its newsroom that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions or search what others are talking about on particular topic, which is exactly what hashtags do.

Using hashtags brings some advantages to the businesses and users whereas it also creates some problems. For advantages, as a social bookmark, hashtags make it extremely easy for people to find your tweets. Second, It also prolongs the life of a tweet. For instance, after the message has disappeared out of everybody’s timelines, the term can still be searched on Twitter, which brings a constant audience to your older tweets. Third, it also helps to attract followers and broaden your influence. For example, if you want to start a conversation about WorldCup, all you need to do is to include a #WorldCup hashtag in your tweet, this will encourage users to share comments and ideas via hashtag. The more users mention, retweet or comment on your tweets, the more your influence is likely to grow.

As for the possible disadvantages, since it enables tweets to be found easily. Hashtags make it easy for the dissatisfied customers to spread their negative views rapidly, such as sharing a tweet which contains your business’s name, or name of your products. These kinds of negative sentiment will definitely harm the reputation of a business. A situation like this would be really hard to deal with, if you fail to respond, or don’t respond in the right way, the conversation will stay there for a very long time. It is like an impossible balancing act. Second, this feature can also disengage the followers when some people are over-using hashtags. This kind of message lose its meaning when they include so many hashtags in their tweets. Lastly, Hashtag can also backfire if something goes wrong. It’s because there are some hashtags that are not structured correctly. The phase #workinghard could attract very different interest to the phrase #working #hard, so tweets have to be hashtagged properly and making sure it conveys the proper massage.

According to a news article published in 2013 July by Anderson, what happened in BP was a good example of how Twitter may affect the reputation of a business. BP was involved in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. Under a situation like this, BP has to be clear and honest to the public about his involvement. A point of view and remedy actions should be announced on time to the public via different kinds of social media platforms and that has to connect to the vision of the company and the brand. At this point, social media specialists need to engage with social groups to build the image by controlling the part that can be controlled in that “two overlapping circles” which are its own communications, press releases, and so on [7].

IPO

Twitter IPO

Some say Twitter IPO was really a failure. According to behavioral economist and Forbes writer, Twtter stock felt short for those investors who purchased the stock during the day and held it to the close. In November 6, Twitter set its offer price at $26 a share for few fortunate subscribing investors. The next morning, Twitter’s stock opened at $45.10, peaked at $50.0 a share, and closed at $44.0, slightly below the opening price. [8] In conclusion, no investor who bought the stock the day before and held it to the end of the day came out ahead.The company and its lead banker, Morgan Stanley, were accused that they had been greedy in pricing the deal. [9]


How Twitter Generate Revenue

About 85% of Twitter’s revenue comes from advertising on its site. There are three main ways for a company or an individual to advertise on Twitter: by promoting a tweet that will appear in people’e timelines, promoting a whole account, or promoting a trend. [10]


Based on Twitter 2013 Annual Report, Twitter has been losing money since 2010. In 2013 it lost the most money-about US$650 billion. [11] The main reason we can find on the income statement comes from the research and development cost. Despite that, the revenue has been increasing continuously. In 2013, the revenue doubled from 316,933 million to 664,890 million. At an optimistic tone, we hope the loss mainly comes from the research cost and hopefully in 2014 the loss will decrease.

Social Impact

Twitter has come along very far since its launch in 2006. Due to its capability to reach out to a large population instantaneously it has created a big shift in the way people communicate. Constantly making a difference in the world, twitter has affected many areas including social, cultural, political and businesses. In 2012, it won the Crunchies award for the biggest social impact[12]. When Twitter’s VP of Product, Michael Sippey,was asked to describe twitter in 140 characters or less he replied: “Twitter is the pulse of the planet, and my lifeline to the things I care about. Especially Taylor Swift”

People use twitter to share their random thoughts with the world, to find out what’s going on, to and say what’s happening in their side of the world. No other social media tool has been quite able to connect people like twitter has. Athletes, celebrities, politicians, activists, artists, businesses create a one to one protocol with their followers and send make their voices heard without any interference or delays . Fans can see the human side of their superheroes, can directly talk to them and hear from them, they can retweet and favorite the tweets they find interesting or important adding value to it while giving credit to its owner.

Ellen Degeneres’ selfie at the Oscars

Take the Ellen DeGeneres’ s selfie with a group of celebrities during the Oscars night. That one picture crashed Twitter during the Oscars because of its massive resharing. It was retweeted 3 million times in less than two days and was seen by 37 million people worldwide according to Twitter’s numbers (cite). According to MIPTV CEO Maurice Levy, the selfie which was taken by a Samsung smartphone is worth between $800 million and $1 billion to Samsung. Samsung had spent $20 million on broadcasting, including a hidden twitter deal for celebrities selfies at the back room of the Oscars.[13].

Most followed people in Twitter in 2010

In 2010 there were on average 50 million tweets sent per day, this number increased to million in Feb 2011 and to millions after September 11, 2011. In 2013, twitter had a billion registered users, 36 million monthly visitors, 255 million monthly active users and 100 million daily active user with China having the largest number of users of 35.5 million. In 2014, there has been 391 million users with no followers. President Barack Obama is the top world leader on twitter . Currently Katy Perry is at the top with 54,727,150 followers[14]. Surprisingly, Justin Bieber holds the second place with 53,103,886 followers[15]. There were 2.5 million tweets regarding Steve Jobs death in the first 13 hours after it was reported. This equals to almost 53 tweets per second.

Twitter has been working hard on making a positive difference in the world and helping the less fortunate. Many of the twitter’s employees are actively involved in the community and volunteer at places like Glide Memorial Church. Twitter has an initiatives #FridayForGood, during which employees are encouraged to spend at least a couple hours doing volunteer work on a particular Friday. #FridayForGood and community work in general are not limited to San Francisco office; employees in other offices share the same values and place equal importance on volunteer work[16]. Individuals have also used twitter to promote their campaigns, causes, etc or just to reach out to their followers for help dealing with important issues.

The Power of One Wrong Tweet

Twitter is a great way to start your conversations with your followers but sometimes, it might go wrong.

Impact on community

Late last year a New Jersey teenager (Kara Alongi) ran away from home but posted a plea for help on Twitter saying there was an intruder in her house and asking people to call 911. The tweet went viral and was retweeted for more than 32,000 times, along with a hashtag like #helpfindkara, and her twitter collected to 100,000 followers[17]. Her house was also surrounded by residents and the police.

Change the stock market

In 2013, hackers took over the Associated Press(American multinational nonprofit news agency in New York City) Twitter account and claimed that there had been explosions at the White House and that the president was injured. The tweet was up for a few minutes but retweeted more than 3,000 times before it went offline. As a result, the stock market was down by 143 points which cost $136.5 billion of the index value [18].

Legal issues

Justine Sacco, a former PR executive for IAC, the media company that controls websites such as The Daily Beast, About.com, CollegeHumor and Match.com. She got fired, and her twitter account was deleted by tweeting “Going to Africa. Hope I don't get AIDS. Just kidding. I'm white!“[19].

Infidelity, Break-Ups, and Divorce

Actress Jennifer Aniston tried to call John Mayer but he didn’t pick up, then he was telling her he didn't have time for her by posting a tweet on his twitter [20]. Thus, she ended relationship with him because of his Twitter 'obsession’

So be careful with what you tweet, if it targets wrong people, you might be in big trouble. Nothing is ever truly anonymous, people can still find it as Denise Wakeman, a blogger expert, and Josh Peters, a social-media consultant say:

"Everything you tweet is searchable on the web. This can be good and bad. Good if you're strategically using key words for which you want to be found; and bad if you aren't mindful that if you're not nice, it can come back to bite you!" Denise Wakeman


Political Impact

One of the most memorable twitter moments were when president Barack Obama was reelected as the president of the United States. His picture of him holding Michelle Obama and tweeting “Four more years” was the most popular tweet of 2012. The image has been retweeted 818,559 times, the most retweeted image before Ellen’s selfie. It’s amazing that one message from one person has been shared almost a million times. However, president Obama did not like losing his famous retweet record to Ellen and called it a “Cheap Stunt” on this video:

Ellen's Oscar selfie a 'cheap stunt', Obama jokes

Twitter has played a wonderful role as a an honest media source. It has been a strong tool in showing the real picture of everything happening around the world. Everyone is a reporter and everything can be broadcasted. Often media sources are biased and are tampered with the propaganda of politics. However, social media tools, especially twitter are showing an almost mirror image of incidents happening around the world. 47% of Internet users in Middle East and Africa use twitter[1]. Twitter has been Instrumental in helping people organize protests in Egypt, Tunisia and the U.S., including the Wall Street Movement. It was the star of the media coverage surrounding the death of Osama bin Laden. During the 2009-10 Iranian election protests, twitter was the only tool assisting people with showing the world what was really going on during the protests. International reporters were banned from making reports about the clashes and about the brutal actions of the government. In other cases such as in Egypt twitter has played a key role in helping with overthrowing the dictatorship of that company.

#BringBackOurGirls

When 276 girls were abducted from their boarding school in Nigeria by Boko Haram militants, many people around the world including Michelle Obama, Malala Yousafzai and celebrities joined a campaign on twitter with #bringbackourgirls to help bring attention to the subject. This helped with the creation of many protests around the world. Most girls have escaped since then but there are still some held as a hostage[2]. Social media tools, particularly twitter are making it difficult for the barbarians and dictators to hide behind the media veil. People are seeing the real face of crisis in places like Gaza, Syria , Afghanistan and Iraq.

In the video “Social Media State of the union Keynote - NERVE 2014 -Phili PA” (2014)[3], Gary Vaynerchuk describes the Internet as the “biggest cultural shift in our industry”. He says that “We are currently living through the second industrial revolution” and that everyone” is grossly underestimating the technology and cultural shifts that we are living through right now, and that, within that, there is enormous opportunity and enormous danger depending on what you decide to do”. Twitter for sure is a great example of this enormous opportunity and enormous danger. Gary continues to say: “You may think that Twitter is dumb, you may think that FaceBook is not cool anymore or who’s there or my customer is not there, you may think that, but every piece of data and every growth of every company in America over the last eighteen months proves you wrong”. “I use twitter and facebook as a gateway drug to get to this evening”[4].


Impacts on Businesses

Social media has become a significant and a powerful tool for businesses because of its users and their presence. Twitter has a huge mass of users which makes it very valuable for businesses making it a virtual platform for the industry. It not only allows them to increase their business potential but also gives them the ability to capture more audience as opposed to traditional broadcasting of a business. As the online presence becomes more and more vital for businesses, having a corporate website does not seem enough, social media pages have become a necessity as consumers seek for more and more engagement. Twitter enables business to directly communicate with their customers or potential customers with real time responding and direct engagement. Twitter has become a rich social venue for businesses and can be used for variety of reasons depending on the business and what they want to communicate and what is important to those who they want to communicate it to.

Why use Twitter?

With the updating technology and changing trends, the tools and ways for communications also seem to be changing. To keep up with this trend, businesses need to embrace all channels of communication both online and offline. The online communication involves two way communication and requires user generated content. Twitter has a huge mass that generates leverage for the businesses to be more inclined to use twitter. With twitter features, it allows consumers to be part of the business processes by giving them an opportunity to interact with the company in real time and allowing the consumers to give their feedback on a public platform. Lack of online twitter presence may have an adverse effect on a company’s reputation and the company may not be able to address and identify issues that their consumers may be posting. In a nutshell, the ways of marketing, selling, supporting and building a reputation is changing and involves more engagement. Twitter with its power of users and their presence, is a rich social platform for companies to further extend the potential and operations of their business.

Marketing and Promotion

#DellOutlet

Twitter is ranked as one of the ten-most-visited websites worldwide by Alexa's web traffic analysis.[5] Since twitter holds most power of users presence, it becomes essential for the marketers to have their message out through this rich online platform. Companies are able to offer deals , contests, promotions and make those topics go viral leading to greater customer acquisition and awareness of their company. One of the major examples of that is DELL with 1.4 million followers on twitter. Twitter accounted for over 3 million sales in 2009 with doubling up to 6.5 million in 2010 and increasing since then through Dell outlet.

With that being said, twitter also acts as a word of mouth for virtual world. Anything good or bad tweeted can immediately be seen by others. According to Neilson, 2009 – 70% of the consumers trust other consumers opinions online [6]. Therefore, a company’s presence and ability to deal with the negative opinions on the same platform becomes essential. Additionally, twitter can be integrated with TV advertising to transform it to online sales. The spilling over effect of twitter, where any promotion of marketing campaign can go viral, can help the company to generate more and more online sales as well as awareness.

PR and Brand Intergration

Richard Branson tweets about non-business issues

Twitter allows brands to get more visibility on customer experiences. It allows rapid distribution of company news.Companies get the ability to share their content that is personalized to the company’s internal culture. Their internal news, videos and/or blog posts are potentially used to publicize the company and to increase brand awareness. Whether it’s a promotion or a new product launch, the news about the company spreads very quickly through twitter that acts as a virtual word of mouth. By having a twitter account and actively tweeting, the company is able to reinforce the brand and the brand values and starting a dialogue that could potentially help build and maintain strong positive perceptions in the minds of the customers.

When a company is tweeting, they are able to portray what the company aims at doing and continuously enforce the values that they want to be known for. For example, Lush’s branding is inclined towards sustainability and social causes specifically towards animals. Recently, they had a new product – shark fin free soaps. Because their moto is “fighting against animal cruelty”, they engaged people on twitter in regards to “fin free” product. Instead of only promoting the product, then posted a link to fin-free petition, which represents their company values and indirectly promotes their fin free product. It helps boost their brand image and about what they stand for and promote their product at the same time.

Lush's twitter posts

Additionally, twitter allows the executives of the corporations to become celebrity. These executives are able to interact with their consumers on a personal level by sharing their personal opinions about relevant and non-relevant issues and encapsulate what they really stand for in regards to their corporate culture or other issues. It foils company’s social presence and acts as an authoritative leadership voice that tells the company’s story that further strengthens corporate brand image.

Richard Branson, founder of Virgin group, is one of the most famous twitter celebrity. He doesn’t explicitly promote or try to generate revenue but talks about things and issues that matter to him aside from just Virgin Group. He discusses his business strategy as well as cultural and political issues along with his opinions. When he discusses general issues, people are able to relate to him more and are more likely have a positive perception of his companies resulting in trust in the company & a better brand image.


Customer Support

Best Buy offers support through Twitter

Companies respond to complains and appreciation in real time and acknowledge them publicly. Companies such as BestBuy, Comcast, Translink have representatives that are available that respond to complains on twitter in real time helping improve brand image and creating an instant change in customer experience. Twitter allows them to complete the feedback loop of receiving the feedback to responding to it quickly. With this response and completed feedback loop, companies are able to influence how the consumers think about the companies and change the negative perceptions into a positive one.

Recently, Translink had a complete shutdown of skytrain for few hours due to technical difficulties that impacted the whole lower mainland and their commuting. This resulted in complains and anger towards Translink as it happened twice in a week. To replace skytrain for few hours, there were special buses with special routes to help people get to their destination. Translink used twitter to quickly respond to queries and to make quick announcements which would have been harder on the phone otherwise. Corporate website would not have been the perfect example as not everyone is constantly checking the website for updates. However, many people who are active on twitter would check their twitter feed multiple times a day and get notifications on their smart phone.

Human Resource

When it comes to HR, one’s virtual personality is almost equally valued. Twitter allows one to have a virtual personality that is just in between personal and professional. When people micro-blog about their personal and work life, they create a virtual personality that is used by employers to get an idea about a potential employee’s personality.

RBC posts a job on twitter
Additionally, the hiring process seems to be dynamically changing. The job boards are being transferred on social media such as LinkedIn or twitter to attract a pool of potential employees. When an employer posts a job on twitter, they will be more likely to find someone who is interested in their company because it will be most likely to be viewed applied for by someone who is following the company and is also interested in the company him/herself. Roy Bahat, A HBR expert, says “The best candidates are those who will be thrilled to work for you, not those who just need a new job and happen to stumble upon you. People who follow your company or you on Twitter, Tumblr, etc. have already put their hands up and said they’re interested in you” [7]. In his blog post, he explains the changing trend of hiring process and that using social media such as twitter, employers can replace and/or compliment generic resumes with twitter posts and the kind of conversations they are engaged in to get a real idea of a potential employees real personality.

Market Research and Multidimensional Analysis

Twitter has multiple analytic tools to help businesses to gain insights about a particular situation or issue. Twitter is an open and public platform with a large mass of people with different geographical background and different demographic dimensions. Using twitter as a tool for insights and confirming data assumptions, a company is able to understand and analyse the opinions which were much difficult before. Businesses can also use various twitter analytic tools such as Hootsuite and Tweetdeck to increase the effectiveness of their twitter campaigns and to measure the impacts of their campaigns by measuring the traffic and the attributes of their traffic.

Collaborations and Future

Future Collaborations with Twitter
  • Google: Google and Twitter join forces for disaster alerts [8]. Google intends on populating twitter with search and maps to alert the public in regards to the situation. It will also serve as a tool to answer questions and about what to do at that moment in the real time.
  • Gnip: Twitter bought Gnip with an intention to keep their data to themselves or to sell it for commercial purposes later on[9].
  • U2topia: Twitter has collaborated with U2topia mobiles in an attempt to capture 3rd world countries’ market where smartphones are not an obvious technology [10]. It will allow regular cell phone users to see what’s trending via text and will be able to use twitter’s other functions with texts.
  • Sky: This collaboration intends on allowing Sky subscribers to watch or record content from twitter’s mobile app and from with in tweets[11].
  • Comcast: They both collaborated to come up with ‘Seeit’ deal which is further evolving to allow TV subscribers to record TV programs via their twitter account[12].
  • Amazon: Amazon has collaborated with twitter in USA and Uk to allow twitter users to add the products to the cart from amazon’s twitter page by just replying with a specific phrase (#amazoncart) making twitter a platform for direct e-commerce[13].

The Journey of Twitter and Continuing

Twitter started off as simply a microblogging site and has continuously evolved. It has come a long way to incorporate both commercial and personal users needs while being a platform to spread news across large masses by just a click. We can expect twitter to become the next digital newspaper or a broadcasting channel replacing/complimenting TV or a common platform for e-commerce as started off by Amazon. We can expect it to become a major tool used for hiring process and become bloggers’ major tool for blogging frequently.

References

  1. Smith, C. (2014, July 25). By The Numbers: 200 Amazing Twitter Statistics. Retrieved from Digital Marketing Ramblings: http://expandedramblings.com/index.php/march-2013-by-the-numbers-a-few-amazing-twitter-stats/#.U9XieEjG7ss
  2. Rohdan, M. (2014, June 02). Bring Back Our Girls’ Protests Banned in Nigerian Capital. Retrieved from Time: http://time.com/2815958/bring-back-our-girls-protests-banned-in-nigerian-capital/
  3. Vaynerchuk, G.[NERVE 2014 - Philly PA ] .(2014, July 27). Social Media State of the union Keynote - NERVE 2014 - Philly PA [Video file]. Retrieved from Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=trueview-instream&v=ay7jpEMLxnw
  4. Vaynerchuk, G.[NERVE 2014 - Philly PA ] .(2014, July 27). Social Media State of the union Keynote - NERVE 2014 - Philly PA [Video file]. Retrieved from Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=trueview-instream&v=ay7jpEMLxnw
  5. (2014, July).How popular is twitter.com. Retrieved from :http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/twitter.com
  6. (2009, May). Nielsen’s Social Media QuickTake. Retrieved from :http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/newswire/uploads/2009/06/nielsen_pr_090619.pdf
  7. Bahat, R. ( 2012, November 21). '‘In the Twitter era, you should never post a job again. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review: http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/11/in-the-twitter-era-you-should-never-post-a-job-again/
  8. Gadkari, P. (2014, July). '‘Google and Twiiter join forces for disaster alerts. Retrieved from Engadget: http://www.engadget.com/2014/06/06/google-twitter-public-alert-tweets/
  9. Lee, N. (2014, April). '‘Twitter’s latest acquisition turns tweets into a commodity. Retrieved from Engadget: http://www.engadget.com/2014/04/15/twitter-buys-gnip/
  10. O´Brien, T. (2013, December). '‘Twitter and U2opia Mobile bring trending tweets and topics to dumb phones. Retrieved from Engadget: http://www.engadget.com/2013/12/06/twitter-u2opia-ussd/
  11. Rigg, J. (2014, April). '‘Sky now lets you watch or record TV directly from Twitter. Retrieved from Engadget: http://www.engadget.com/2014/04/16/sky-watch-record-twitter-embeds/
  12. Fingas, J. (2013, December). '‘Twitter and Comcast expand their tweet-based TV viewimg to nine more providers. Retrieved from Engadget: http://www.engadget.com/2013/12/11/twitter-and-comcast-expand-their-tweet-based-tv-viewing/
  13. Dent, S. (2014, May). '‘Add item to your #AmazonCart directly from Twitter. Retrieved from Engadget: hhttp://www.engadget.com/2014/05/05/add-items-to-your-amazoncart-directy-from-twitter/ttp://www.engadget.com/2013/12/11/twitter-and-comcast-expand-their-tweet-based-tv-viewing/
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