Youtube and Online Video

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YouTube Logo
Creator Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim
Date of Introduction February 14, 2005


Introduction of YouTube

Youtube Founders From Left to Right: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim

YouTube is a video-sharing website that was founded by three early PayPal employees, who are Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim in February 2005. The Company is based in California in United States. YouTube provides a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media video content including video clips, TV clips, and music videos.

In 2006, YouTube was sold to Google for USD $1.65 billion, and which was Google’s first billion-dollar acquisition[1]. Youtube is still worth a lot of value. As indicated by the last valuation done by Barclays, estimated that YouTube’s operating margins is around 30% to 35%, and the total value of YouTube is esitimated between $15.6 billion and $21.3 billion. [2]

Regarding the three founders of Youtube, Chad Hurley was the CEO of YouTube until 2010. He then stepped down and started a company called Mixbit with Steve Chen. Jawed Karim also started a venture capital fund called Youniversity, to help current and former university students startup.


Statistics about YouTube


Regarding the veiwership of YouTube, there is: [1]

  • 80% of traffic that are from outside the US
  • 61 countries localized with YouTube and across 61 languages
  • about millions of subscriptions happen every day

YouTube Partner Program

Regarding the YouTube Partner Program which was introduced in 2007, it has: [2]

  • more than a million video creators from over 30 countries
  • thousands of channels that are making six figures of revenue a year


Regarding the monetization of YouTube, there is: [3]

  • thousands of advertisers that are using TrueView in-stream
  • 75% in-stream ads that are skippable
  • more than a million advertisers using Google ad platforms

Mobile Devices

Regarding the mobile and devices with YouTube, there is: [4]

  • almost 40% of YouTube's global watch time that is made up by mobile
  • hundreds of millions of devices that is available with YouTube

Business Model

Business Model

Most of the videos on YouTube are free to watch. However, YouTube was Google’s first billion-dollar acquisition, which means YouTube was indeed a money spinning venture that made huge profits.

There are four key players in the model, which are [5]:

Viewers – who see Youtube as a platform to find and enjoy entertaining contents.

Creators – who produce contents, and try to make sustainable revenue on YouTube by joining the Partner Program.

Advertisers – who use Youtube as a platform to reach their target audiences.

Youtube - who generates revenue from sponsored partnerships, keyword biddings and a cut of the total advertising dollars it sells.

YouTube Partner Program

By joining the Partner Program , it allows creators to monetize content on the site through many ways, including advertisements, paid subscriptions, and merchandise. Creators can also build their channels and audience while taking benefits from the variety of resources, features, and programs that are provided by YouTube.

As a member of the program, creators’ eligible videos can earn a portion of money from relevant ads and fees. The program also help expand their earning potential by reaching more global audience with their monetized content. In addition, the partner program helps creators to track and manage their performance, and even provides a variety of reports and improvement insights [6]

Sponsored Partnerships

YouTube has sponsored partnerships with media firms such as MGM, CBS, and Lions Gate Entertainment, whereby these media firms are allowed to post full-length movies and TV shows on the site. This action was intended to create competition to compete with websites like Hulu, who provides free TV shows and movies as well [7].

Bidding Keywords

Another way for youtube to make money is from keyword biddings. As videos creators always want to have more subscribers and more viewers, they would bid for keywords. Keywords are the suggested words appear below the search box on the site. These keywords help video creators to attract more viewers attentions to their videos [8].


Youtube generates most of its revenue from advertisement. Advertisment includes videos, text, images, and other interactive ads that run across the web on any computers and mobile devices. eMarketer estimated that YouTube earned about 21 % of all video ad revenues in the United States and earned $5.6 billion dollors in gross revenue worldwide last year in 2013 [9]. Since YouTube has one billion unique visitors every month, therefore advertisers are always willing to pay to get in front of this large captive audience. Advertisers on YouTube can choose to market the people based on their gender, age, location and interests, which could easily be known from people’s search and watch history.

Videos and Usage

Creative Commons and Standard License

Individuals can either search and watch videos they are interested in or they can upload their own videos. When the user chooses to upload a video, they are given an option to either go with creative commons license or standard YouTube license.

A create commons license gives permission to allow the entire YouTube community the right to reuse and edit the video. The standard YouTube license allows users to view the video but not reuse and edit the video [10].

DMCA Takedowns

Megaupload theme song

The digital millennium copyright act (DMCA) was signed by congress in 1998 and gives online service providers such as YouTube protection from copyright infringement. The act required online service providers to implement a take-down notice if there is copyrighted content in their website. If YouTube receives a formal DMCA take down notice, it will remove the copyrighted video to prevent getting sued. In 2007, Viacom filed a $1 billion lawsuit against YouTube for allowing users to upload thousands of videos owned by Viacom. YouTube however filed a summary motion for dismissal on the grounds of DMCA and in 2013, the judge granted the dismissal [1]. In 2007, there was a Copyright owners can use a feature on YouTube called ContentID which detects whether a video is using copyrighted content. It automatically scans the video for audio and video content deemed infringing and allows the copyright owner to choose different actions:

1. Mute audio that matches their music

2. Block the video from being viewed

3. Monetize the video by running ads against it [2]

However contentID is not 100% accurate and there are times where a video containing original content was wrongfully taken down. In such cases, the uploader can file a dispute claim to YouTube. This can take up to one month and in the process, the original uploader would lose ad revenue while YouTube would still receive its 45% cut of the ad revenue.

The Megaupload theme song was taken down due to copyright complaint from Universal Music Group even though the music and video was original. The video featured music artist and it was most likely the reason why it was taken down.

YouTube Analytics

YouTube has features that helps uploaders build and engage their audience.

YouTube Traffic Source Data gives information about where the users are finding your videos

YouTube Subscriber Data provides information about where you are gaining and losing subscribers

YouTube Audience Retention provides information about how users are interacting with your video and how long they are watching it

Music on YouTube


In July 2014, it was rumoured that YouTube would be implementing a new service called YouTube Music Pass. This service charges users a subscription fee for viewing and downloading music videos for offline use. This was a response to Amazon's unveil of Prime Music service for its Prime users. The Prime Music service allows users to stream and download music whereas YouTube Music Pass allows users to stream and download music videos. A YouTube executive have said that they have signed 90% of the record labels representing the music industry however many indie music artists not happy with this because they would receive an unfair amount of revenues generated. This means that if the indie labels don't sign on with YouTube, big artists such as Adele and Radiohead and their music videos will most likely be blocked from YouTube [3]. These music artists would most likely switch to another video streaming website that doesn't a music subscription service. Vimeo in particular would be an ideal candidate because they are known for their high definition playback which would improve the music video's quality.

A main reason YouTube is implementing music pass is because of Spotify, a music streaming service which allows users to download music for offline use. Spotify works on a subscription base model which allows paid subscribers to listen and download music. Its paid subscribers have grown from 5 million to 10 million within two years. People use Spotify as opposed to iTunes is because they are able to discover new music through other users' playlists. In addition, they are able to download music as many times as they want whereas in iTunes, users would have to purchase every song they want to download. YouTube believes they have an opportunity for users who want music videos instead of just the music [4].


Although YouTube is the most dominant free video hosting service with 13% of all internet downstream traffic flowing from them, they have direct and indirect competitors that are sustainable because of their specific niches. The direct competitors provide the same service as YouTube while the indirect competitors have a different business model such as live streaming or streaming of movies and TV shows.

Direct Competitors



Vimeo is a video sharing website that is well known for their high quality videos. They were the first video sharing website to offer HD playback and have a community of indie film makers and their fans. They currently attract over 100 million unique visitors each month. The website generates revenue through banner ads and there are no disruptive commercials or clips played at the beginning of each video [5]. They also offer a premium account for $69.95/annually which includes:

  • Unlimited HD video uploads and embedding of HD videos
  • Priority video conversion
  • Increase to 5gb/week of storage
  • No Banner-Ads[6]



DailyMotion is a French owned video sharing website that is well known for having a looser grip on copyrighted and R-rated content. They have 116 million unique visitors each month, was the 31st most visited site in 2012 and is known as "poor man's YouTube" In-video ads and banners are the primary source of revenue and content creators can earn up to 70% of the ad revenue [7][8]. There has been talks about acquisition by Yahoo but nothing has resulted of it yet [9].

DailyMotion also has a unique service called OpenVOD aimed at popular content creators. The service helps sell access to film and videos by pay-per-view rentals or bundle subscriptions. The content creator has complete control of the price, can embed their content to other sites and also set geographic restrictions [10]. Dailymotion takes 30% of the revenue generated from OpenVOD [11].


Since China has blocked YouTube, Tudou is China's biggest video sharing website. It has over 300 million unique visitors each month and they claim to be one of the worlds largest bandwidth users moving 1 petabyte to 7 million users daily [12].

Indirect Competitors



Twitch is a live streaming video website that focuses on gaming. It was launched three years ago and was recently bought out by Google for $1 billion. It is the most popular e-sports streaming service by a large margin and even though YouTube has live streams, their impact has been small. Twitch has 43 million unique visitors each monthly and the average view length for users is one hour and a half daily [13].



Netflix is a video streaming service that provides paid subscribers with movies and TV shows. It was founded in 1997 as a DVD rental mail service but switched over to digital distribution in 1999. There are over 35 million subscribers and is known as the "king of bandwidth data" because it accounts for 34% of downstream usage during primetime hours. Content availability differs by each region and the monthly subscription fee is set to increase from $7.99 to $8.99 [14].

Youtube and the World

Since Youtube’s inception nearly ten years ago, it has become a major source of visual media in our everyday lives. It has grown from primarily a video hosting service into a burgeoning social network providing a multitude of ways to interact with video content and other users. Youtube is said to have had a hand in shaping industries ranging from education to music and political/world events. The following section will explore some of the areas that Youtube has significant impact on.


MIT OpenCourseWare

The Massachusetts Institution of Technology’s (MIT) OpenCourseWare project predates Youtube and was established in 2001. The project aims to upload course material and lecture recordings for all undergraduate and graduate level courses at MIT [15]. The birth of Youtube in 2005 paved way for MIT to post their lecture recordings for anyone and everyone who had an internet connection capable of accessing Youtube, and later available as downloads on iTunes.

As a highly reputed and sizable post-secondary education, MIT brought to the internet the innovative idea of open, freely accessible education known today as MOOCs (Massively Open Online Courses) that has inspired hundreds of education institutions around the world to follow suit [16].

The MIT Youtube channel boasts over 2000 videos, 554,000 subscribers and nearly 70 million views as of July 2014. The most popular videos pertain to Computer Science, physics, and mathematics. New video uploads are still common even with most course lectures already uploaded [17].

Khan Academy

Salman Khan

Khan Academy is a not-for-profit educational organization created by Salman Khan in 2006. Their stated mission is “changing education for the better by providing a free world-class education for anyone anywhere." The topics students can learn about range from math to art history. In 2013, over 10 million students have used Khan Academy's video lectures freely available on Youtube and embedded on their main site [18]. Khan Academy is much more utilized than MIT's OpenCourseWare, with almost 450 million views across all videos on its Youtube channel. The majority of videos feature Khan narrating a lecture with a digital blackboard, providing a one-one-one, tutor-like environment for students [19].

International Awareness/Online Activism

Syrian Uprising 2012

Within North America, Youtube has become a popular place for music videos, recordings of pets and animals, and breeding grounds for the next big and popular fad (see planking). In other parts of the world however, it is a powerful tool to spread the visual records of everyday citizens turned rebels and their struggles against their autocratic regimes. During 2012 in Syria, Youtube was a “sword and shield” against the Assad regime. Recordings of violent crackdowns and massacres were taken in secret with the ever-present risk of being arrested or killed if discovered. Due to the tight Syrian censorship control over state news and foreign journalism, raw footage of the often bloody and visceral state violence conducted against citizens could only be sneaked out of Syrian borders into Jordan before being uploaded to Youtube. The leverage Youtube gave the Syrian resistance activists include unfiltered visuals of the conditions in Syria, unrestricted access by everyone in the world, and a place for people to become aware and discuss Syrian citizens’ situation and push world leaders to take action [20].

American Military Gunning Down Civilians in Iraq

Youtube is also a platform to expose the wrongdoings of not only corrupt Middle Eastern governments but also those of even the US army. During 2010 in Iraq, an American military helicopter gunned down an unarmed gathering of Iraqi civilians, including a Reuters photographer under the unfounded pretext they were insurgents with a rocket launcher. In the video, taken from the perspective inside the helicopter, the gunman can be audibly heard taunting the men on the ground to just pick up a gun so he could have pretense to open fire. The gunman opens fire eventually and the Iraqi civilians being gunned down are clearly unarmed and desperately trying to take cover and drag their wounded to safety [21]. As a classified video that was made available by Wikileaks, the US government decried it as a threat to national security while most US citizens were reviled and scorn such acts of wholesale murder and attempts to cover it up from public view. The video is still available on Youtube, possibly due to the realization of the futility in hiding a video already viewed by millions of people [22].

Japanese villagers attempting to flee the tsunami

Japanese Tsunami 2011

During the Japanese Tsunami in 2011, in addition to the extensive news and video coverage by large news networks around the world, there was a great deal of raw footage uploaded by Japanese citizens embroiled in the center of the disaster. As a developed nation with a highly developed infrastructure in both traditional wired and mobile internet, the amount footage and the variety of perspectives in each video allowed the world to vicariously experience a fraction of the distress and shock felt by the tsunami victims.

Anonymous v. Scientology

Online Activism

Other than the impact Youtube has on real world events, it is also a platform used by online activists. One of the more well known groups to protest against organizations believed to embody exploitative or malicious intent is the hacktivist group known as Anonymous and their expositional video against the cult of Scientology. While both groups are legally questionable in nature, the video itself has millions of views and has undoubtedly brought light upon an organization that was formerly only a mystery to the greater population. [1].

YouTube and Everyday Life

The Techno Viking

Techno Viking

One of the caveats of Youtube is the potential for both good and bad. Privacy is a major concern when it comes to videos of everyday situations being uploaded, as the case of the ‘Techno viking’ proves. The ‘Techno viking’ video shows a bearded man dancing to techno music during Fuckparade on a street in Berlin, Germany in 2000. This became an internet phenomenon for how captivating the techno viking’s presence and dance was during the video. However, the man featured in the video as the ‘techno viking’ took legal action against the creator of the video and was forced to take the video down and yield most of the earnings made from the video. However, the internet adage goes if it’s been on the Internet, it will never truly disappear and is moreso true if the content in question is popular. In the case of the technoviking, removal of the original video did nothing to stifle the derivative remixes and spinoff content [1].

Mitt Romney and the 47%


The novel 1984 by George Orwell is well known for imagining a world where the government is present in every aspect of our lives and always monitored by Big Brother. Youtube has become something on the other side of the spectrum, being a platform where powerful politicians and their costly mistakes are recorded and uploaded for the mass populace to criticize. Both presidential candidates John McCain and Mitt Romney suffered from making politically imprudent statements that they later tried to reconcile as wrongly interpreted, ultimately having negative impacts their presidential campaigns. John McCain’s statement that American troops could occupy Iraq for 100 years drew immediate backlash after it was originally recorded at a town hall meeting in New Hampshire and uploaded to Youtube [1]. Similarly, Mitt Romney’s ‘47 percent’ comment was secretly recorded at a private fundraiser and effectively declared his indifference towards the lower and middle classes that little to no taxes. These comments have been considered major losses in presidential points and trended hotly to millions of views [2]. As governments have their tools to monitor citizens, Youtube has become a major counterweight to keep politicians on their toes.

Net Neutrality

Net neutrality is the adherence to non-discrimination of data based on its content, origin, user, or application. In order to discuss the controversial points surrounding this concept and how it relates to Youtube, the structure and process of how data flows through the internet is briefly explained below followed by a timeline of major events pertaining to net neutrality.

The Consumer Internet

Internet Backbone

Senator Ted Stevens once described the Internet as "a series of tubes". Even though this description is frequently and popularly ridiculed, the general idea of a large number of pipes connecting networks together to form the Internet is not completely inaccurate. The consumer internet that most people are familiar with exists due to the free flow and transfer of data (peering) between Tier 1 Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that form the backbone of the internet. As long as a user is able to make a network connection to a Tier 1 ISP, they are able to access content on every other Tier 1 ISP and almost everything on the Internet. Tier 1 ISPs are naturally some of the biggest companies in the telecommunications and ISP industry, including but not limited to AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, and Cogent Communications. These Tier 1 networks are able to peer with each for free on the unspoken basis of transferring roughly the same amount of data to each other [3].

Internet Traffic 2014

Youtube consumes almost 13.2% of total downstream bandwidth on the Internet, second only to Netflix consuming 34.2% [4]. Ten years ago, Bit Torrent traffic consumed 60% of all downstream Internet bandwidth, down to 31% six years ago and a much smaller but still significant 3.4% currently in 2014 [5]. Internet speeds and bandwidth availability increase every year, but the growth in popularity of high-definition video content leading to larger file sizes is allegedly beginning to strain the ISP networks that consumers purchase access to. These admissions by large ISPs like Verizon subtly hint at consumer internet access subscription fees being insufficient to cover the maintenance and continued upgrade of networks to meet future bandwidth demands. As Youtube and Netflix together effectively consume 50% of total downstream bandwidth, Tier 1 ISPs such as Verizon have openly expressed their discontent over how these companies are giant bandwidth hogs effectively geting a free ride through their networks while still profiting from the content delivered.[6] [7].

Net Neutrality Timeline

2002 - FCC decision to not regulate ISPs the same way they have regulated telephone land line companies as a utility

2005 - FCC orders ISP Madison River to stop blocking voIP as it is anti-competitive considering they also sell telephone land line service

2007 - Comcast throttles Bit Torrent traffic

2008 - FCC orders Comcast to stop throttling Bit Torrent traffic

2010 - FCC unleashes Open Internet Rules, ISPs go to court to challenge what they see as regulation

2014 - US Court of Appeals strike down the FCC rules, ISPs are technically not bound to the rules of net neutrality anymore, beginning of “Web 3.0” era of sponsored data [8].

Effect on Consumers

Net Neutrality Explained - Pro View

With the Open Internet Order legally demerited by the US Court of Appeals, ISPs are once again free of any binding legal requirement to adhere to net neutrality and could theoretically begin discriminating and controlling the flow of data through their networks. ISPs now have gatekeeper powers over access to content on the Internet and can control the download and upload speeds of content to and from their consumers [1].

Critics concerned over the effective ‘death’ of net neutrality have pointed out that this will greatly decrease the potential of the Internet as a platform for innovation. Larger companies that pay for faster data flows will have the upper hand over startups and small businesses as users will prefer to access the services of established companies with unimpeded speeds. Smaller and new businesses may have to factor in paying these transfer ‘tolls’ to ISPs or their competitiveness may suffer due to constrained speeds when delivering data to consumers. Companies with cloud-based applications or services could be heavily affected by the advent of internet fast and slow data lanes [2].

TV vs Online Video Media

Youtube and Netflix not only take up half of all Internet downstream bandwidth, but have been hailed as the revolutionary next step after television, as television was to radio broadcast. Statistics up to 2013 show pay TV network ratings have been on a steady decline over the years. One of the remaining hooks that keep consumers subscribed to their pay TV subscriptions is the lack of certain live sports broadcasts on the internet. Statistics show even sports broadcast ratings, taking NBA finals game over two decades as an indicator, have declined. Another factor contributing to the decrease in Pay TV subscriptions is the rising prices of these subscription, pushing consumers to cut the Pay TV cord and switch to online viewing through services such as Netflix and Hulu. While cable companies with strong focus on their cable TV subscriptions have lost customers, telecommunication companies including AT&T and Verizon understand the changing paradigm in consumer preferences. These telcos often offer a combo subscription with both internet and basic TV channels, and price the internet-only subscriptions high enough that most customers choose a combo subscription as they are led to believe it provides better value. [3].

Network Ratings 2007 - 2012
NBA ratings 1991 - 2013

Cord Cutting

How to Cut the Cord

An increasingly common and predicted phenomenon happening between the TV and online video industry is cord cutting, or simply cancelling traditional pay TV subscriptions and either relying on Over The Air (OTA) TV signals or sourcing video content from the Internet instead. When switching to Internet sources of video content, consumers are not restricted to viewing only on their televisions but can also watch on their mobile and portable devices at any location with optimal Internet access. This change in paradigm not only decreases monthly costs but also gives consumers more liberty to choose exactly what type of content they want to pay for in contrast to Pay TV's bundles of mostly irrelevant or undesired channels [4].

While Youtube has the largest number of online videos available, not all of it is cream of the crop content and many consumers continue to crave shows from traditional pay TV, especially HBO. Services such as Amazon Instant Video, Google Play and iTunes offer large selections of downloads for movies and TV episodes, with the choice to pay for individual episodes or entire seasons. Prices range from 1.99 to 3.99 an episode and are available hours after airing on TV networks. Streaming services that rely on a steady internet connection include the aforementioned Netflix and Hulu, featuring massive libraries of content for only $7.99/month each [5]. However, the Netflix library is heavily cut down in Canada and Hulu is regionally locked to access in the US only. Canadian consumers can and have overcome these restrictions by using a Virtual Private Network to reroute their traffic through a US IP address and effectively disguising themselves as US consumers [6].

While most TVs sold in 2014 come with 'smart' functionality, or the capacity to connect to the internet, run apps, and a variety of other connectivity functions not previously available on 'dumb' TVs, the majority of cord cutting consumers that source Internet video content to their TVs employ set top devices such a well known Roku and the newer entries from big companies such as Chromecast, AppleTV and Amazon FireTV [7][8]. All of these devices have access to Youtube and their individual markets for video content such as Google Play and iTunes. Roku's market bears special mention as it is a highly diverse and open market with channels from a plethora of TV networks and content creators [9]. Roku is where the traditional pay TV industry has an opportunity to transition into the new era of Internet connected and on-demand television.

Barriers to making the decision to cut the cord include the appearingly daunting need for technical expertise in order to setup acquiring video content from the Internet, as well as the lack of Pay TV only sports networks jointly refusing to make their programming available online [10].

The Future

Future of YouTube

YouTube is by far the most popular website for free video hosting and streaming in the world. Today, almost all devices include computers, phones, tablets and even streaming-video boxes can play YouTube videos via apps. Tomorrow, it is going to involve more gadgets that can play YouTube videos as long as it has a screen on it. People will no longer need television, and can watch videos on YouTube with their devices wherever they are.

Patreon is a site that is a type of crowdfunding site that helps content creators monetize support from fans serving as a platform for fans to pledge funds to their favourite creators. As more creators crowd over and fight for ad revenue on Youtube, Patreon enables fans to directly support their favourite creators and keep producing the content they love. Patreon links are most often provided at the end of videos. Patreon charges a 4% credit card processing fee and 5% cut of the total pledges. Although Patreon's funding model is not a novel concept, their target users are plentiful and have a great deal of support from fans. Youtube is likely to adopt a similar model in the future to retain their content creators.

Future of Online Video

As online video keeps growing, it becomes a key means for people to satisfy their needs of information and entertainment. According to Cisco, video will account for 79% of all consumer internet traffic by 2018. Internet-to-TV traffic alone, such as to set-top or android boxes connected to the internet, will have tripled by 2018 [11]. People will be more likely to find and learn information on the Internet by watching videos instead of reading articles or texts. For example, textbooks may no longer be text-based but instead converted into videos available online following the precedent set by Khan Academy. Teachers might only be needed for tutorial purposes, giving students an extra hand and help answer questions, instead of teaching content in a linear format.


  1. Free Press. (2014). Decoding Net Neutrality: A User-Friendly Explanation of Verizon v. FCC and Its Impact on Latinos. Retrieved from
  2. CRN. (2014). MSP Fears: Net Neutrality Rules Could Stifle Innovation, Hurt Small Businesses. Retrieved from
  3. Business Insider. (2013). TV Is Dying, And Here Are The Stats That Prove It. Retrieved from
  4. ZDNet. (2014). Cutting the cord: Why I kicked my cable TV company to the curb. Retrieved from
  5. Tom's Guide. (2014). Your Guide to Cable TV Cord-Cutting. Retrieved from,news-17928.html
  6. Huffington Post. (2014). American Netflix In Canada: Many Have Discovered How To Get It. Retrieved from
  7. Computer World. (2012). Cut the cord: 14 set-top media streamers (update). Retrieved from
  8. The Fuse Joplin. (2014). Amazon Fire TV vs. Roku vs. Chromecast vs. Apple TV – How they Compare with Each Other. Retrieved from
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  10. VideoNuze. (2010). Is "Cord-Cutting" a Big Deal or Not?. Retrieved from
  11. Cisco. (2014). Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2013-2018.
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